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Energies 2012, 5(3), 790-814; doi:10.3390/en5030790
Article

Placement of Combined Heat, Power and Hydrogen Production Fuel Cell Power Plants in a Distribution Network

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Received: 5 January 2012; in revised form: 29 January 2012 / Accepted: 20 February 2012 / Published: 19 March 2012
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Abstract: This paper presents a new Fuzzy Adaptive Modified Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (FAMPSO) for the placement of Fuel Cell Power Plants (FCPPs) in distribution systems. FCPPs, as Distributed Generation (DG) units, can be considered as Combined sources of Heat, Power, and Hydrogen (CHPH). CHPH operation of FCPPs can improve overall system efficiency, as well as produce hydrogen which can be stored for the future use of FCPPs or can be sold for profit. The objective functions investigated are minimizing the operating costs of electrical energy generation of distribution substations and FCPPs, minimizing the voltage deviation and minimizing the total emission. In this regard, this paper just considers the placement of CHPH FCPPs while investment cost of devices is not considered. Considering the fact that the objectives are different, non-commensurable and nonlinear, it is difficult to solve the problem using conventional approaches that may optimize a single objective. Moreover, the placement of FCPPs in distribution systems is a mixed integer problem. Therefore, this paper uses the FAMPSO algorithm to overcome these problems. For solving the proposed multi-objective problem, this paper utilizes the Pareto Optimality idea to obtain a set of solution in the multi-objective problem instead of only one. Also, a fuzzy system is used to tune parameters of FAMPSO algorithm such as inertia weight. The efficacy of the proposed approach is validated on a 69-bus distribution system.
Keywords: Fuzzy Adaptive Modified Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (FAMPSO); Fuel Cell Power Plant (FCPP); Combined Heat; Power and Hydrogen (CHPH); multi-objective optimization; Distributed Generation (DG) Fuzzy Adaptive Modified Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (FAMPSO); Fuel Cell Power Plant (FCPP); Combined Heat; Power and Hydrogen (CHPH); multi-objective optimization; Distributed Generation (DG)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Farjah, E.; Bornapour, M.; Niknam, T.; Bahmanifirouzi, B. Placement of Combined Heat, Power and Hydrogen Production Fuel Cell Power Plants in a Distribution Network. Energies 2012, 5, 790-814.

AMA Style

Farjah E, Bornapour M, Niknam T, Bahmanifirouzi B. Placement of Combined Heat, Power and Hydrogen Production Fuel Cell Power Plants in a Distribution Network. Energies. 2012; 5(3):790-814.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Farjah, Ebrahim; Bornapour, Mosayeb; Niknam, Taher; Bahmanifirouzi, Bahman. 2012. "Placement of Combined Heat, Power and Hydrogen Production Fuel Cell Power Plants in a Distribution Network." Energies 5, no. 3: 790-814.


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