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Impact of PHEVs Penetration on Ontario’s Electricity Grid and Environmental Considerations
Chemical Engineering Department, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
Chemical Engineering Department, King Mongkut's University of Technology, Thonburi, Bangkok 10140, Thailand
Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resource Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 1M1, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 September 2012; in revised form: 10 November 2012 / Accepted: 12 November 2012 / Published: 27 November 2012
Abstract: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have a large potential to reduce greenhouse gases emissions and increase fuel economy and fuel flexibility. PHEVs are propelled by the energy from both gasoline and electric power sources. Penetration of PHEVs into the automobile market affects the electrical grid through an increase in electricity demand. This paper studies effects of the wide spread adoption of PHEVs on peak and base load demands in Ontario, Canada. Long-term forecasting models of peak and base load demands and the number of light-duty vehicles sold were developed. To create proper forecasting models, both linear regression (LR) and non-linear regression (NLR) techniques were employed, considering different ranges in the demographic, climate and economic variables. The results from the LR and NLR models were compared and the most accurate one was selected. Furthermore, forecasting the effects of PHEVs penetration is done through consideration of various scenarios of penetration levels, such as mild, normal and aggressive ones. Finally, the additional electricity demand on the Ontario electricity grid from charging PHEVs is incorporated for electricity production planning purposes.
Keywords: plug-in hybrid electric vehicle; electricity grid; peak load demand; base load demand; load forecasting
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MDPI and ACS Style
Ahmadi, L.; Croiset, E.; Elkamel, A.; Douglas, P.L.; Unbangluang, W.; Entchev, E. Impact of PHEVs Penetration on Ontario’s Electricity Grid and Environmental Considerations. Energies 2012, 5, 5019-5037.
Ahmadi L, Croiset E, Elkamel A, Douglas PL, Unbangluang W, Entchev E. Impact of PHEVs Penetration on Ontario’s Electricity Grid and Environmental Considerations. Energies. 2012; 5(12):5019-5037.
Ahmadi, Lena; Croiset, Eric; Elkamel, Ali; Douglas, Peter L.; Unbangluang, Woramon; Entchev, Evgueniy. 2012. "Impact of PHEVs Penetration on Ontario’s Electricity Grid and Environmental Considerations." Energies 5, no. 12: 5019-5037.