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Energies 2010, 3(4), 650-670; doi:10.3390/en3040650

New Approaches for Very Short-term Steady-State Analysis of An Electrical Distribution System with Wind Farms

1 Università degli Studi di Napoli Parthenope, Department for Technologies, Centro Direzionale, Is. C4 – 80143 Napoli, Italy 2 Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Deptartment of Electrical Engineering,Via Claudio 21, Napoli, Italy 3 Politecnico di Torino, Department of Electrical Engineering, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino, Italy 4 Università degli Studi di Cassino, Deptartment of Industrial Engineering, Via G. Di Biasio 43, Cassino, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 February 2010 / Revised: 23 March 2010 / Accepted: 29 March 2010 / Published: 1 April 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy)
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Distribution networks are undergoing radical changes due to the high level of penetration of dispersed generation. Dispersed generation systems require particular attention due to their incorporation of uncertain energy sources, such as wind farms, and due to the impacts that such sources have on the planning and operation of distribution networks. In particular, the foreseeable, extensive use of wind turbine generator units in the future requires that distribution system engineers properly account for their impacts on the system. Many new technical considerations must be addressed, including protection coordination, steady-state analysis, and power quality issues. This paper deals with the very short-term, steady-state analysis of a distribution system with wind farms, for which the time horizon of interest ranges from one hour to a few hours ahead. Several wind-forecasting methods are presented in order to obtain reliable input data for the steady-state analysis. Both deterministic and probabilistic methods were considered and used in performing deterministic and probabilistic load-flow analyses. Numerical applications on a 17-bus, medium-voltage, electrical distribution system with various wind farms connected at different busbars are presented and discussed.
Keywords: wind energy; steady-state analysis; load-flow wind energy; steady-state analysis; load-flow
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Bracale, A.; Carpinelli, G.; Proto, D.; Russo, A.; Varilone, P. New Approaches for Very Short-term Steady-State Analysis of An Electrical Distribution System with Wind Farms. Energies 2010, 3, 650-670.

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