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A Novel Technique to Determine Concentration-Dependent Solvent Dispersion in Vapex
Department of Chemical Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5B 2K3, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 September 2009; in revised form: / Accepted: 20 September 2009 / Published: 12 October 2009
Abstract: Vapex (vapor extraction of heavy oil and bitumen) is a promising recovery technology because it consumes low energy, and is very environmentally-friendly. The dispersion of solvents into heavy oil and bitumen is a crucial transport property governing Vapex. The accurate determination of solvent dispersion in Vapex is essential to effectively predict the amount and time scale of oil recovery as well to optimize the field operations. In this work, a novel technique is developed to experimentally determine the concentration-dependent dispersion coefficient of a solvent in Vapex process. The principles of variational calculus are utilized in conjunction with a mass transfer model of the experimental Vapex process. A computational algorithm is developed to optimally compute solvent dispersion as a function of its concentration in heavy oil. The developed technique is applied to Vapex utilizing propane as a solvent. The results show that dispersion of propane is a unimodal function of its concentration in bitumen.
Keywords: concentration-dependent dispersion; Vapex; propane; heavy oil and bitumen; variational calculus; mathematical modeling
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Abukhalifeh, H.; Lohi, A.; Upreti, S.R. A Novel Technique to Determine Concentration-Dependent Solvent Dispersion in Vapex. Energies 2009, 2, 851-872.
Abukhalifeh H, Lohi A, Upreti SR. A Novel Technique to Determine Concentration-Dependent Solvent Dispersion in Vapex. Energies. 2009; 2(4):851-872.
Abukhalifeh, Hadil; Lohi, Ali; Upreti, Simant R. 2009. "A Novel Technique to Determine Concentration-Dependent Solvent Dispersion in Vapex." Energies 2, no. 4: 851-872.