Next Article in Journal
Previous Article in Journal
Energies 2009, 2(4), 851-872; doi:10.3390/en20400851
Article

A Novel Technique to Determine Concentration-Dependent Solvent Dispersion in Vapex

,
 and *
Received: 1 September 2009; Accepted: 20 September 2009 / Published: 12 October 2009
Download PDF [426 KB, uploaded 12 October 2009]
Abstract: Vapex (vapor extraction of heavy oil and bitumen) is a promising recovery technology because it consumes low energy, and is very environmentally-friendly. The dispersion of solvents into heavy oil and bitumen is a crucial transport property governing Vapex. The accurate determination of solvent dispersion in Vapex is essential to effectively predict the amount and time scale of oil recovery as well to optimize the field operations. In this work, a novel technique is developed to experimentally determine the concentration-dependent dispersion coefficient of a solvent in Vapex process. The principles of variational calculus are utilized in conjunction with a mass transfer model of the experimental Vapex process. A computational algorithm is developed to optimally compute solvent dispersion as a function of its concentration in heavy oil. The developed technique is applied to Vapex utilizing propane as a solvent. The results show that dispersion of propane is a unimodal function of its concentration in bitumen.
Keywords: concentration-dependent dispersion; Vapex; propane; heavy oil and bitumen; variational calculus; mathematical modeling concentration-dependent dispersion; Vapex; propane; heavy oil and bitumen; variational calculus; mathematical modeling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Abukhalifeh, H.; Lohi, A.; Upreti, S.R. A Novel Technique to Determine Concentration-Dependent Solvent Dispersion in Vapex. Energies 2009, 2, 851-872.

AMA Style

Abukhalifeh H, Lohi A, Upreti SR. A Novel Technique to Determine Concentration-Dependent Solvent Dispersion in Vapex. Energies. 2009; 2(4):851-872.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abukhalifeh, Hadil; Lohi, Ali; Upreti, Simant R. 2009. "A Novel Technique to Determine Concentration-Dependent Solvent Dispersion in Vapex." Energies 2, no. 4: 851-872.


Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert