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Energies, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2009), Pages 477-804

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle A Preliminary Investigation of Energy Return on Energy Investment for Global Oil and Gas Production
Energies 2009, 2(3), 490-503; doi:10.3390/en20300490
Received: 5 May 2009 / Revised: 9 June 2009 / Accepted: 16 June 2009 / Published: 13 July 2009
Cited by 68 | PDF Full-text (79 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Economies are fueled by energy produced in excess of the amount required to drive the energy production process. Therefore any successful society’s energy resources must be both abundant and exploitable with a high ratio of energy return on energy invested (EROI). Unfortunately [...] Read more.
Economies are fueled by energy produced in excess of the amount required to drive the energy production process. Therefore any successful society’s energy resources must be both abundant and exploitable with a high ratio of energy return on energy invested (EROI). Unfortunately most of the data kept on costs of oil and gas operations are in monetary, not energy, terms. Fortunately we can convert monetary values into approximate energy values by deriving energy intensities for monetary transactions from those few nations that keep both sets of data. We provide a preliminary assessment of EROI for the world’s most important fuels, oil and gas, based on time series of global production and estimates of energy inputs derived from monetary expenditures for all publicly traded oil and gas companies and estimates of energy intensities of those expenditures. We estimate that EROI at the wellhead was roughly 26:1 in 1992, increased to 35:1 in 1999, and then decreased to 18:1 in 2006. These trends imply that global supplies of petroleum available to do economic work are considerably less than estimates of gross reserves and that EROI is declining over time and with increased annual drilling levels. Our global estimates of EROI have a pattern similar to, but somewhat higher than, the United States, which has better data on energy costs but a more depleted resource base. Full article
Open AccessArticle Experimental Investigation of a Three-Bed Adsorption Refrigeration Chiller Employing an Advanced Mass Recovery Cycle
Energies 2009, 2(3), 531-544; doi:10.3390/en20300531
Received: 8 June 2009 / Revised: 13 July 2009 / Accepted: 16 July 2009 / Published: 17 July 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (793 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The performance of an advanced three-bed adsorption chiller with a mass recovery cycle has been experimentally investigated in the present study. The temperature and pressure of various components of the chiller were monitored to observe the dynamic behaviour of the chiller. The [...] Read more.
The performance of an advanced three-bed adsorption chiller with a mass recovery cycle has been experimentally investigated in the present study. The temperature and pressure of various components of the chiller were monitored to observe the dynamic behaviour of the chiller. The performances in terms of the coefficient of performance (COP) and specific cooling power (SCP) were compared with a conventional single stage. The results show that the proposed cycle produces COP and SCP values superior to those of the conventional single stage cycle for heat source temperature below 75 °C. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Study on the Applicability of Kinetic Models for Shenfu Coal Char Gasification with CO2 at Elevated Temperatures
Energies 2009, 2(3), 545-555; doi:10.3390/en20300545
Received: 5 June 2009 / Revised: 29 June 2009 / Accepted: 10 July 2009 / Published: 20 July 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (260 KB)
Abstract
In this paper, measurements of the CO2 gasification kinetics for two types of Shenfu coal chars, which were respectively prepared by slow and rapid pyrolysis at temperatures of 950 °C and 1,400 °C, were performed by an isothermal thermo-gravimetric analysis under [...] Read more.
In this paper, measurements of the CO2 gasification kinetics for two types of Shenfu coal chars, which were respectively prepared by slow and rapid pyrolysis at temperatures of 950 °C and 1,400 °C, were performed by an isothermal thermo-gravimetric analysis under ambient pressure and elevated temperature conditions. Simultaneously, the applicability of the kinetic model for the CO2 gasification reaction of Shenfu coal chars was discussed. The results showed: (i) the shrinking un-reacted core model was not appropriate to describe the gasification reaction process of Shenfu coal chars with CO2 in the whole experimental temperature range; (ii) at the relatively low temperatures, the modified volumetric model was as good as the random pore model to simulate the CO2 gasification reaction of Shenfu coal chars, while at the elevated temperatures, the modified volumetric model was superior to the random pore model for this process; (iii) the integral expression of the modified volumetric model was more favorable than the differential expression of that for fitting the experimental data. Moreover, by simply introducing a function: A = Aexp(ft), it was found that the extensive model of the modified volumetric model could make much better predictions than the modified volumetric model. It was recommended as a convenient empirical model for comprehensive simulation of Shenfu coal char gasification with under conditions close to those of entrained flow gasification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coal Gasification and Liquefaction)
Open AccessArticle A Simulation Tool for Geometrical Analysis and Optimization of Fuel Cell Bipolar Plates: Development, Validation and Results
Energies 2009, 2(3), 582-594; doi:10.3390/en20300582
Received: 1 July 2009 / Revised: 16 July 2009 / Accepted: 29 July 2009 / Published: 31 July 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (696 KB)
Abstract
Bipolar plates (BPs) are one of the most important components in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) due to the numerous functions they perform. The objective of the research work described in this paper was to develop a simplified and validated method [...] Read more.
Bipolar plates (BPs) are one of the most important components in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) due to the numerous functions they perform. The objective of the research work described in this paper was to develop a simplified and validated method based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), aimed at the analysis and study of the influence of geometrical parameters of BPs on the operation of a cell. A complete sensibility analysis of the influence of dimensions and shape of the BP can be obtained through a simplified CFD model without including the complexity of other components of the PEMFC. This model is compared with the PEM Fuel Cell Module of the FLUENT software, which includes the physical and chemical phenomena relevant in PEMFCs. Results with both models regarding the flow field inside the channels and local current densities are obtained and compared. The results show that it is possible to use the simple model as a standard tool for geometrical analysis of BPs, and results of a sensitivity analysis using the simplified model are presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fuel Cells)
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Open AccessArticle A Fifteen Year Record of Global Natural Gas Flaring Derived from Satellite Data
Energies 2009, 2(3), 595-622; doi:10.3390/en20300595
Received: 3 July 2009 / Revised: 30 July 2009 / Accepted: 5 August 2009 / Published: 7 August 2009
Cited by 176 | PDF Full-text (1517 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have produced annual estimates of national and global gas flaring and gas flaring efficiency from 1994 through 2008 using low light imaging data acquired by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). Gas flaring is a widely used practice for the disposal [...] Read more.
We have produced annual estimates of national and global gas flaring and gas flaring efficiency from 1994 through 2008 using low light imaging data acquired by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). Gas flaring is a widely used practice for the disposal of associated gas in oil production and processing facilities where there is insufficient infrastructure for utilization of the gas (primarily methane). Improved utilization of the gas is key to reducing global carbon emissions to the atmosphere. The DMSP estimates of flared gas volume are based on a calibration developed with a pooled set of reported national gas flaring volumes and data from individual flares. Flaring efficiency was calculated as the volume of flared gas per barrel of crude oil produced. Global gas flaring has remained largely stable over the past fifteen years, in the range of 140 to 170 billion cubic meters (BCM). Global flaring efficiency was in the seven to eight cubic meters per barrel from 1994 to 2005 and declined to 5.6 m3 per barrel by 2008. The 2008 gas flaring estimate of 139 BCM represents 21% of the natural gas consumption of the USA with a potential retail market value of $68 billion. The 2008 flaring added more than 278 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) into the atmosphere. The DMSP estimated gas flaring volumes indicate that global gas flaring has declined by 19% since 2005, led by gas flaring reductions in Russia and Nigeria, the two countries with the highest gas flaring levels. The flaring efficiency of both Russia and Nigeria improved from 2005 to 2008, suggesting that the reductions in gas flaring are likely the result of either improved utilization of the gas, reinjection, or direct venting of gas into the atmosphere, although the effect of uncertainties in the satellite data cannot be ruled out. It is anticipated that the capability to estimate gas flaring volumes based on satellite data will spur improved utilization of gas that was simply burnt as waste in previous years. Full article
Open AccessArticle Energy Policy in Taiwan: Historical Developments, Current Status and Potential Improvements
Energies 2009, 2(3), 623-645; doi:10.3390/en20300623
Received: 31 May 2009 / Revised: 21 July 2009 / Accepted: 5 August 2009 / Published: 10 August 2009
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (298 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recognizing the importance of energy as a vital component in economic development, the Taiwanese government has been continuously revising its energy policy, seeking to balance economic development, energy supply, and environmental protection (3E). Some measures, in an attempt to achieve the 3E [...] Read more.
Recognizing the importance of energy as a vital component in economic development, the Taiwanese government has been continuously revising its energy policy, seeking to balance economic development, energy supply, and environmental protection (3E). Some measures, in an attempt to achieve the 3E balance, were previously implemented in Taiwan; nevertheless, some unresolved issues departing from certain core principles of Taiwan’s sustainable energy policy and an international initiative for a low carbon society remain. The aim of this paper is to examine the energy supply and demand structure of Taiwan and the present status of individual energy carriers (including coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity). In addition, it investigates the current energy policy framework and its implementation in Taiwan, identifies unresolved issues regarding sustainable energy development, and formulates key policy solutions for certain identifiable problems to enable the achievement of a liberalized, orderly, efficient, and clean energy supply and demand system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Policy)
Open AccessArticle A Simple Interpretation of Hubbert’s Model of Resource Exploitation
Energies 2009, 2(3), 646-661; doi:10.3390/en20300646
Received: 8 July 2009 / Revised: 4 August 2009 / Accepted: 5 August 2009 / Published: 13 August 2009
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (438 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The well known “Hubbert curve” assumes that the production curve of a crude oil in a free market economy is “bell shaped” and symmetric. The model was first applied in the 1950s as a way of forecasting the production of crude oil [...] Read more.
The well known “Hubbert curve” assumes that the production curve of a crude oil in a free market economy is “bell shaped” and symmetric. The model was first applied in the 1950s as a way of forecasting the production of crude oil in the US lower 48 states. Today, variants of the model are often used for describing the worldwide production of crude oil, which is supposed to reach a global production peak (“peak oil”) and to decline afterwards. The model has also been shown to be generally valid for mineral resources other than crude oil and also for slowly renewable biological resources such as whales. Despite its widespread use, Hubbert’s modelis sometimes criticized for being arbitrary and its underlying assumptions are rarely examined. In the present work, we use a simple model to generate the bell shaped curve curve using the smallest possible number of assumptions, taking also into account the “Energy Return to Energy Invested” (EROI or EROEI) parameter. We show that this model can reproduce several historical cases, even for resources other than crude oil, and provide a useful tool for understanding the general mechanisms of resource exploitation and the future of energy production in the world’s economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Economics)
Open AccessArticle The Economics of Gasification: A Market-Based Approach
Energies 2009, 2(3), 662-694; doi:10.3390/en20300662
Received: 21 July 2009 / Revised: 20 August 2009 / Accepted: 21 August 2009 / Published: 25 August 2009
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper deals with the economics of gasification facilities in general and IGCC power plants in particular. Regarding the prospects of these systems, passing the technological test is one thing, passing the economic test can be quite another. In this respect, traditional [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the economics of gasification facilities in general and IGCC power plants in particular. Regarding the prospects of these systems, passing the technological test is one thing, passing the economic test can be quite another. In this respect, traditional valuations assume constant input and/or output prices. Since this is hardly realistic, we allow for uncertainty in prices. We naturally look at the markets where many of the products involved are regularly traded. Futures markets on commodities are particularly useful for valuing uncertain future cash flows. Thus, revenues and variable costs can be assessed by means of sound financial concepts and actual market data. On the other hand, these complex systems provide a number of flexibility options (e.g., to choose among several inputs, outputs, modes of operation, etc.). Typically, flexibility contributes significantly to the overall value of real assets. Indeed, maximization of the asset value requires the optimal exercise of any flexibility option available. Yet the economic value of flexibility is elusive, the more so under (price) uncertainty. And the right choice of input fuels and/or output products is a main concern for the facility managers. As a particular application, we deal with the valuation of input flexibility. We follow the Real Options approach. In addition to economic variables, we also address technical and environmental issues such as energy efficiency, utility performance characteristics and missions (note that carbon constraints are looming). Lastly, a brief introduction to some stochastic processes suitable for valuation purposes is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coal Gasification and Liquefaction)
Open AccessArticle Investigation of the Performance of a Heat Pump Using Waste Water as a Heat Source
Energies 2009, 2(3), 697-713; doi:10.3390/en20300697
Received: 5 August 2009 / Accepted: 24 August 2009 / Published: 28 August 2009
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (996 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this research, a water-water heat pump system using waste water as a heat source, a type that is not often used in Turkey and the World, was experimentally modeled. The experiments were performed under the conditions of simulated waste water temperature [...] Read more.
In this research, a water-water heat pump system using waste water as a heat source, a type that is not often used in Turkey and the World, was experimentally modeled. The experiments were performed under the conditions of simulated waste water temperature values of 20 °C, 30 °C and 40 °C. Inlet and outlet water temperatures of the evaporator and condenser, water flow rates in the evaporator and condenser circuits, pressures at the compressor inlet and outlet and power consumption of the system were measured. The heating coefficients of performance were calculated based on the measurements. It was found that the maximum temperature in the energy storage tank was about 50.6 °C. For the heat source temperatures of 20 °C, 30 °C and 40 °C, the heating coefficients of the performance of the system became 3.36, 3.43 and 3.69, respectively, 6 min. after the start time of the experiments and then they were decreased to 1.87, 1.83 and 1.77 with increasing water temperature in the condenser tank. The mean uncertainty value of the measurement parameters was found to be about ±2.47%. Finally, for the purpose of meeting hot water need as well as floor heating system requirements, it is seen that energy quality level of a waste low grade temperature heat source can be increased by using a heat pump system. Full article
Open AccessArticle Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) by Miscible CO2 and Water Flooding of Asphaltenic and Non-Asphaltenic Oils
Energies 2009, 2(3), 714-737; doi:10.3390/en20300714
Received: 6 May 2009 / Revised: 4 August 2009 / Accepted: 27 August 2009 / Published: 2 September 2009
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An EOR study has been performed applying miscible CO2 flooding and compared with that for water flooding. Three different oils are used, reference oil (n-decane), model oil (n-C10, SA, toluene and 0.35 wt % asphaltene) and crude oil (10 wt % asphaltene) obtained from the Middle East. Stearic acid (SA) is added representing a natural surfactant in oil. For the non-asphaltenic oil, miscible CO2 flooding is shown to be more favourable than that by water. However, it is interesting to see that for first years after the start of the injection (< 3 years) it is shown that there is almost no difference between the recovered oils by water and CO2, after which (> 3 years) oil recovery by gas injection showed a significant increase. This may be due to the enhanced performance at the increased reservoir pressure during the first period. Maximum oil recovery is shown by miscible CO2 flooding of asphaltenic oil at combined temperatures and pressures of 50 °C/90 bar and 70 °C/120 bar (no significant difference between the two cases, about 1%) compared to 80 °C/140 bar. This may support the positive influence of the high combined temperatures and pressures for the miscible CO2 flooding; however beyond a certain limit the oil recovery declined due to increased asphaltene deposition. Another interesting finding in this work is that for single phase oil, an almost linear relationship is observed between the pressure drop and the asphaltene deposition regardless of the flowing fluid pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oil Recovery)
Open AccessArticle Energy Subsidies in Argentina Lead to Inequalities and Low Thermal Efficiency
Energies 2009, 2(3), 769-788; doi:10.3390/en20300769
Received: 15 July 2009 / Revised: 3 September 2009 / Accepted: 3 September 2009 / Published: 8 September 2009
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Natural gas is the main energy resource for buildings in Argentina. Since 2002, subsidies have kept the prices of this fuel between 9 and 26 times lower than regular prices in other countries. The lowest prices are the result of climate-related subsidies. [...] Read more.
Natural gas is the main energy resource for buildings in Argentina. Since 2002, subsidies have kept the prices of this fuel between 9 and 26 times lower than regular prices in other countries. The lowest prices are the result of climate-related subsidies. In cold areas, heating uses several times more energy than locations in Europe with a similar climate. A potential for consumption reductions of up to 70% suggests a very low building thermal performance. The main barriers to finding a solution are the heavy subsidies and public unawareness. Users, government officials, and construction professionals do not identify the very low thermal efficiency. Energy policies to encourage improvements are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Policy)
Open AccessArticle Methanol Electro-Oxidation on Pt-Ru Alloy Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Nanotubes
Energies 2009, 2(3), 789-804; doi:10.3390/en20300789
Received: 5 August 2009 / Accepted: 11 September 2009 / Published: 16 September 2009
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been investigated in recent years as a catalyst support for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Improved catalyst activities were observed and attributed to metal-support interactions. We report a study on the kinetics of methanol electro-oxidation on CNT supported [...] Read more.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been investigated in recent years as a catalyst support for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Improved catalyst activities were observed and attributed to metal-support interactions. We report a study on the kinetics of methanol electro-oxidation on CNT supported Pt-Ru alloy nanoparticles. Alloy catalysts with different compositions, Pt53Ru47/CNT, Pt69Ru31/CNT and Pt77Ru23/CNT, were prepared and investigated in detail. Experiments were conducted at various temperatures, electrode potentials, and methanol concentrations. It was found that the reaction order of methanol electro-oxidation on the PtRu/CNT catalysts was consistent with what has been reported for PtRu alloys with a value of 0.5 in methanol concentrations. However, the electro-oxidation reaction on the PtRu/CNT catalysts displayed much lower activation energies than that on the Pt-Ru alloy catalysts unsupported or supported on carbon black (PtRu/CB). This study provides an overall kinetic evaluation of the PtRu/CNT catalysts and further demonstrates the beneficial role of CNTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fuel Cells)

Review

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Open AccessReview Calculation of Residual Electricity Mixes when Accounting for the EECS (European Electricity Certificate System) — the Need for a Harmonised System
Energies 2009, 2(3), 477-489; doi:10.3390/en20300477
Received: 31 May 2009 / Revised: 22 June 2009 / Accepted: 26 June 2009 / Published: 1 July 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (389 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
According to the Electricity Directive, suppliers of electricity must disclose their electricity portfolio with regards to energy source and environmental impact. This paper gives some examples of disclosure systems and residual electricity mixes in Norway, Sweden and Finland, compared to an approach [...] Read more.
According to the Electricity Directive, suppliers of electricity must disclose their electricity portfolio with regards to energy source and environmental impact. This paper gives some examples of disclosure systems and residual electricity mixes in Norway, Sweden and Finland, compared to an approach based on a common regional disclosure. Disclosures based on the E-TRACK standard are presented, as well as the variation in CO2 emissions from different residual mixes. The results from this study clearly show that there is a need for a harmonised, transparent and reliable system for the accounting of electricity disclosure in Europe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Solutions in the Era of Climate Change)
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Open AccessReview A Review of Ultrahigh Efficiency III-V Semiconductor Compound Solar Cells: Multijunction Tandem, Lower Dimensional, Photonic Up/Down Conversion and Plasmonic Nanometallic Structures
Energies 2009, 2(3), 504-530; doi:10.3390/en20300504
Received: 26 June 2009 / Revised: 7 July 2009 / Accepted: 7 July 2009 / Published: 13 July 2009
Cited by 58 | PDF Full-text (699 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Solar cells are a promising renewable, carbon-free electric energy resource to address the fossil fuel shortage and global warming. Energy conversion efficiencies around 40% have been recently achieved in laboratories using III-V semiconductor compounds as photovoltaic materials. This article reviews the efforts [...] Read more.
Solar cells are a promising renewable, carbon-free electric energy resource to address the fossil fuel shortage and global warming. Energy conversion efficiencies around 40% have been recently achieved in laboratories using III-V semiconductor compounds as photovoltaic materials. This article reviews the efforts and accomplishments made for higher efficiency III-V semiconductor compound solar cells, specifically with multijunction tandem, lower-dimensional, photonic up/down conversion, and plasmonic metallic structures. Technological strategies for further performance improvement from the most efficient (Al)InGaP/(In)GaAs/Ge triple-junction cells including the search for 1.0 eV bandgap semiconductors are discussed. Lower-dimensional systems such as quantum well and dot structures are being intensively studied to realize multiple exciton generation and multiple photon absorption to break the conventional efficiency limit. Implementation of plasmonic metallic nanostructures manipulating photonic energy flow directions to enhance sunlight absorption in thin photovoltaic semiconductor materials is also emerging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Cells)
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Open AccessReview Thermochemical Biomass Gasification: A Review of the Current Status of the Technology
Energies 2009, 2(3), 556-581; doi:10.3390/en20300556
Received: 13 May 2009 / Revised: 15 July 2009 / Accepted: 16 July 2009 / Published: 21 July 2009
Cited by 153 | PDF Full-text (297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A review was conducted on the use of thermochemical biomass gasification for producing biofuels, biopower and chemicals. The upstream processes for gasification are similar to other biomass processing methods. However, challenges remain in the gasification and downstream processing for viable commercial applications. [...] Read more.
A review was conducted on the use of thermochemical biomass gasification for producing biofuels, biopower and chemicals. The upstream processes for gasification are similar to other biomass processing methods. However, challenges remain in the gasification and downstream processing for viable commercial applications. The challenges with gasification are to understand the effects of operating conditions on gasification reactions for reliably predicting and optimizing the product compositions, and for obtaining maximal efficiencies. Product gases can be converted to biofuels and chemicals such as Fischer-Tropsch fuels, green gasoline, hydrogen, dimethyl ether, ethanol, methanol, and higher alcohols. Processes and challenges for these conversions are also summarized. Full article
Open AccessReview Valuation of Long-Term Investments in Energy Assets under Uncertainty
Energies 2009, 2(3), 738-768; doi:10.3390/en20300738
Received: 5 August 2009 / Accepted: 2 September 2009 / Published: 4 September 2009
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (316 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper aims to contribute to the development of valuation models for long-term investments while keeping an eye on market prices. The adopted methodology is rooted on the existence of markets for futures and options on commodities related to energy investments. These [...] Read more.
This paper aims to contribute to the development of valuation models for long-term investments while keeping an eye on market prices. The adopted methodology is rooted on the existence of markets for futures and options on commodities related to energy investments. These markets are getting ever-increasingly liquid with ever-longer maturities while trading contracts. We discuss the advantages of this approach relative to other alternatives such as the Net Present Value (NPV) or the Internal Rate of Return (IRR), despite a limited increase in the complexity of the models involved. More specifically, using the valuation methods well-known to energy-finance academics, the paper shows how to: break down an investment into its constituent parts, apply to each of them the corresponding risk premium, value annuities on assets with a deterministic or stochastic behavior, and value the options that are available to its owner, in order to get an overall value of the investment project. It also includes an application to improvement in coal consumption, where futures markets are used to get a numerical estimate of the parameters that are required for valuation. The results are then compared with those from traditional methodologies. Conclusions for this type of investments under uncertainty are derived. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Economics)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessAddendum Addendum: Tanabe, K. A Review of Ultrahigh Efficiency III-V Semiconductor Compound Solar Cells: Multijunction Tandem, Lower Dimensional, Photonic Up/Down Conversion and Plasmonic Nanometallic Structures. Energies, 2009, 2, 504-530.
Energies 2009, 2(3), 695-696; doi:10.3390/en20300695
Received: 25 August 2009 / Accepted: 26 August 2009 / Published: 26 August 2009
PDF Full-text (26 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract I have stated in my recent review article that no direct observation of multiple exciton generation (MEG) in the shape of photocurrent extracted from a semiconductor had been made yet. [...] Full article

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