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Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) by Miscible CO2 and Water Flooding of Asphaltenic and Non-Asphaltenic Oils
Department of Petroleum Engineering, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger, Norway
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 May 2009; in revised form: 4 August 2009 / Accepted: 27 August 2009 / Published: 2 September 2009
Abstract: An EOR study has been performed applying miscible CO2 flooding and compared with that for water flooding. Three different oils are used, reference oil (n-decane), model oil (n-C10, SA, toluene and 0.35 wt % asphaltene) and crude oil (10 wt % asphaltene) obtained from the Middle East. Stearic acid (SA) is added representing a natural surfactant in oil. For the non-asphaltenic oil, miscible CO2 flooding is shown to be more favourable than that by water. However, it is interesting to see that for first years after the start of the injection (< 3 years) it is shown that there is almost no difference between the recovered oils by water and CO2, after which (> 3 years) oil recovery by gas injection showed a significant increase. This may be due to the enhanced performance at the increased reservoir pressure during the first period. Maximum oil recovery is shown by miscible CO2 flooding of asphaltenic oil at combined temperatures and pressures of 50 °C/90 bar and 70 °C/120 bar (no significant difference between the two cases, about 1%) compared to 80 °C/140 bar. This may support the positive influence of the high combined temperatures and pressures for the miscible CO2 flooding; however beyond a certain limit the oil recovery declined due to increased asphaltene deposition. Another interesting finding in this work is that for single phase oil, an almost linear relationship is observed between the pressure drop and the asphaltene deposition regardless of the flowing fluid pressure.
Keywords: EOR miscible CO2; asphaltene; relative permeability; pressure drop; wettability; CO2; EOR; mobility ratio; relative permeability
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Chukwudeme, E.A.; Hamouda, A.A. Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) by Miscible CO2 and Water Flooding of Asphaltenic and Non-Asphaltenic Oils. Energies 2009, 2, 714-737.
Chukwudeme EA, Hamouda AA. Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) by Miscible CO2 and Water Flooding of Asphaltenic and Non-Asphaltenic Oils. Energies. 2009; 2(3):714-737.
Chukwudeme, Edwin A.; Hamouda, Aly A. 2009. "Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) by Miscible CO2 and Water Flooding of Asphaltenic and Non-Asphaltenic Oils." Energies 2, no. 3: 714-737.