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Experimental Study on Forced Convective Heat Transfer with Low Volume Fraction of CuO/Water Nanofluid
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University, Chennai, India
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 October 2008; in revised form: 27 February 2009 / Accepted: 4 March 2009 / Published: 6 March 2009
Abstract: The present work is an experimental study of steady state convective heat transfer of de-ionized water with a low volume fraction (0.003% by volume) of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles dispersed to form a nanofluid that flows through a copper tube. The effect of mass flow rate ranging from (0.0113 kg/s to 0.0139 kg/s) and the effect of inlet temperatures at 100C and 17 0C on the heat transfer coefficient are studied on the entry region under laminar flow condition. The results have shown 8% enhancement of the convective heat transfer coefficient of the nanofluid even with a low volume concentration of CuO nanoparticles. The heat transfer enhancement was increased considerably as the Reynolds number increased. Possible reasons for the enhancement are discussed. Nanofluid thermo-physical properties and chaotic movement of ultrafine particles which accelerate the energy exchange process are proposed to be the main reasons for the observed heat transfer enhancement. A correlation for convective heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids, based on transport property and D/x for 8 mm tube has been evolved. The correlation predicts variation in the local Nusselt number along the flow direction of the nanofluid. A good agreement (±10%) is seen between the experimental and predicted results.
Keywords: Convective heat transfer; CuO nanofluid; Laminar flow; Nanofluid; Nanoheat transfer; Nanoparticles; Thermal conductivity enhancement
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MDPI and ACS Style
Asirvatham, L.G.; Vishal, N.; Gangatharan, S.K.; Lal, D.M. Experimental Study on Forced Convective Heat Transfer with Low Volume Fraction of CuO/Water Nanofluid. Energies 2009, 2, 97-119.
Asirvatham LG, Vishal N, Gangatharan SK, Lal DM. Experimental Study on Forced Convective Heat Transfer with Low Volume Fraction of CuO/Water Nanofluid. Energies. 2009; 2(1):97-119.
Asirvatham, Lazarus Godson; Vishal, Nandigana; Gangatharan, Senthil Kumar; Lal, Dhasan Mohan. 2009. "Experimental Study on Forced Convective Heat Transfer with Low Volume Fraction of CuO/Water Nanofluid." Energies 2, no. 1: 97-119.