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Energies 2009, 2(1), 97-119; doi:10.3390/en20100097
Article

Experimental Study on Forced Convective Heat Transfer with Low Volume Fraction of CuO/Water Nanofluid

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Received: 30 October 2008; in revised form: 27 February 2009 / Accepted: 4 March 2009 / Published: 6 March 2009
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Abstract: The present work is an experimental study of steady state convective heat transfer of de-ionized water with a low volume fraction (0.003% by volume) of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles dispersed to form a nanofluid that flows through a copper tube. The effect of mass flow rate ranging from (0.0113 kg/s to 0.0139 kg/s) and the effect of inlet temperatures at 100C and 17 0C on the heat transfer coefficient are studied on the entry region under laminar flow condition. The results have shown 8% enhancement of the convective heat transfer coefficient of the nanofluid even with a low volume concentration of CuO nanoparticles. The heat transfer enhancement was increased considerably as the Reynolds number increased. Possible reasons for the enhancement are discussed. Nanofluid thermo-physical properties and chaotic movement of ultrafine particles which accelerate the energy exchange process are proposed to be the main reasons for the observed heat transfer enhancement. A correlation for convective heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids, based on transport property and D/x for 8 mm tube has been evolved. The correlation predicts variation in the local Nusselt number along the flow direction of the nanofluid. A good agreement (±10%) is seen between the experimental and predicted results.
Keywords: Convective heat transfer; CuO nanofluid; Laminar flow; Nanofluid; Nanoheat transfer; Nanoparticles; Thermal conductivity enhancement Convective heat transfer; CuO nanofluid; Laminar flow; Nanofluid; Nanoheat transfer; Nanoparticles; Thermal conductivity enhancement
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Asirvatham, L.G.; Vishal, N.; Gangatharan, S.K.; Lal, D.M. Experimental Study on Forced Convective Heat Transfer with Low Volume Fraction of CuO/Water Nanofluid. Energies 2009, 2, 97-119.

AMA Style

Asirvatham LG, Vishal N, Gangatharan SK, Lal DM. Experimental Study on Forced Convective Heat Transfer with Low Volume Fraction of CuO/Water Nanofluid. Energies. 2009; 2(1):97-119.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Asirvatham, Lazarus Godson; Vishal, Nandigana; Gangatharan, Senthil Kumar; Lal, Dhasan Mohan. 2009. "Experimental Study on Forced Convective Heat Transfer with Low Volume Fraction of CuO/Water Nanofluid." Energies 2, no. 1: 97-119.


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