Next Article in Journal
Investment Determinants in Self-Consumption Facilities: Characterization and Qualitative Analysis in Spain
Previous Article in Journal
The Effects of Dynamic Pricing of Electric Power on Consumer Behavior: A Propensity Score Analysis for Empirical Study on Nushima Island, Japan
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2018, 11(8), 2177; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082177

Research on a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus Energy Management Strategy Considering Drivability

1
Laboratory of Low Emission Vehicle, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
2
Qing Gong College, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan 063000, China
3
School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [8032 KB, uploaded 21 August 2018]   |  

Abstract

Plug-in hybrid electric buses (PHEBs) is some of the most promising products to address air pollution and the energy crisis. Considering the switching between different working modes often bring about sudden changes of the torque and the speed of different power sources, which may lead to the instability of the power output and affect the driving performance and ride comfort, it is of great significance to develop a real-time optimal energy management strategy for PHEBs to achieve the optimization of fuel economy and drivability. In this study, the proposed strategy includes an offline part and an online part. In the offline part, firstly, the energy conversion coefficient s(t) is optimized by linear weight particle swarm optimization algorithm (LinWPSO), then, the optimization results of s(t) are converted into a 2-dimensional look-up table. Secondly, combined with three typical driving cycle conditions, the gear-shifting correction and mode switching boundary parameters that affect the drivability of the vehicle are extracted by dynamic programming (DP) algorithm. In the online part, combined with the s(t), the gear-shifting correction and mode switching boundary parameters which are obtained through offline optimization, the real-time energy management strategy is proposed to solve the trade-off problem between minimizing the fuel consumption and improving the drivability and riding comfort. Finally, the proposed strategy is verified with simulation, the results show that the proposed strategy can guarantee the engine and the electric motor (EM) work in the high-efficiency area with optimal energy distribution while keeping drivability in the variation of driving circle. The overall performance is improved by 18.54% compared with the rule-based control strategy. The proposed strategy may provide theoretical support for the optimal control of PHEB. View Full-Text
Keywords: plug-in hybrid electric bus; linear weight particle swarm optimization; dynamic programming; fuel economy; drivability plug-in hybrid electric bus; linear weight particle swarm optimization; dynamic programming; fuel economy; drivability
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Tian, J.; Zhang, S. Research on a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus Energy Management Strategy Considering Drivability. Energies 2018, 11, 2177.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top