Next Article in Journal
Resilient Multiscale Coordination Control against Adversarial Nodes
Next Article in Special Issue
Indicator-Based Methodology for Assessing EV Charging Infrastructure Using Exploratory Data Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
A Numerical Study on Influence of Temperature on Lubricant Film Characteristics of the Piston/Cylinder Interface in Axial Piston Pumps
Previous Article in Special Issue
Energy Revolution for Our Common Future: An Evaluation of the Emerging International Renewable Energy Law
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2018, 11(7), 1843; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071843

A Simple Pseudo-Homogeneous Reversible Kinetic Model for the Esterification of Different Fatty Acids with Methanol in the Presence of Amberlyst-15

Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24, 10129 Torino, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10 Years Energies - Horizon 2028)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1857 KB, uploaded 13 July 2018]   |  

Abstract

Fatty acid esterification with alcohols is a crucial step in biodiesel synthesis. Biodiesel consists of long-chain alkyl esters that derive from the transesterification or hydro-esterification of the triglycerides that are contained in vegetable oils. In the first route, the esterification of the free fatty acids is an important pretreatment of the feed; in the second, it is the main reaction of the industrial process. Knowledge of appropriate kinetic models for the catalytic esterification of fatty acids with alcohols is critical in the design of biodiesel synthesis processes. In this work, the kinetic behavior of the reversible esterification of lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic acid, which are the most common saturated fatty acids that are contained in triglyceride feedstocks for biodiesel, with methanol at different temperatures (70–150 °C) and molar ratios of the reactants (1:1–1:2–1:5) was investigated in a batch laboratory basket reactor both in the presence and absence of Amberlyst-15 as the catalyst. Results obtained with Amberlyst-15 were fitted through a ready-to-use pseudo-homogeneous reversible model suitable for process design. The kinetic model was compared with that obtained in a previous work with niobium oxide as the catalyst. With respect to the results that were obtained with niobium oxide, the influence of the chain length of the acid on the kinetic behavior was strongly reduced in the presence of Amberlyst-15. This phenomenon was ascribed to a different catalytic mechanism. View Full-Text
Keywords: sulfonated cation-exchange resins; acid heterogeneous catalyst; free-fatty-acid (FFA) esterification; biodiesel production; pseudo-homogeneous reversible kinetics sulfonated cation-exchange resins; acid heterogeneous catalyst; free-fatty-acid (FFA) esterification; biodiesel production; pseudo-homogeneous reversible kinetics
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Banchero, M.; Gozzelino, G. A Simple Pseudo-Homogeneous Reversible Kinetic Model for the Esterification of Different Fatty Acids with Methanol in the Presence of Amberlyst-15. Energies 2018, 11, 1843.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top