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Energies 2018, 11(3), 533; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030533

Power Flow Distribution Strategy for Improved Power Electronics Energy Efficiency in Battery Storage Systems: Development and Implementation in a Utility-Scale System

1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute for Electrical Energy Storage Technology, Technical University of Munich, Arcisstr. 21, 80333 Munich, Germany
2
The Mobility House GmbH, St.-Cajetan-Str. 43, 81669 Munich, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 January 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 27 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Storage and Application)
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Abstract

Utility-scale battery storage systems typically consist of multiple smaller units contributing to the overall power dispatch of the system. Herein, the power distribution among these units is analyzed and optimized to operate the system with increased energy efficiency. To improve the real-life storage operation, a holistic system model for battery storage systems has been developed that enables a calculation of the energy efficiency. A utility-scale Second-Life battery storage system with a capacity of 3.3 MWh/3 MW is operated and evaluated in this work. The system is in operation for the provision of primary control reserve in combination with intraday trading for controlling the battery state of charge. The simulation model is parameterized with the system data. Results show that losses in power electronics dominate. An operational strategy improving the energy efficiency through an optimized power flow distribution within the storage system is developed. The power flow distribution strategy is based on the reduction of the power electronics losses at no-load/partial-load by minimizing their in-operation time. The simulation derived power flow distribution strategy is implemented in the real-life storage system. Field-test measurements and analysis prove the functionality of the power flow distribution strategy and reveal the reduction of the energy throughput of the units by 7%, as well as a significant reduction of energy losses in the units by 24%. The cost savings for electricity over the system’s lifetime are approximated to 4.4% of its investment cost. View Full-Text
Keywords: battery storage system; energy efficiency; power flow distribution; system simulation; primary control reserve; field-test battery storage system; energy efficiency; power flow distribution; system simulation; primary control reserve; field-test
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Schimpe, M.; Piesch, C.; Hesse, H.C.; Paß, J.; Ritter, S.; Jossen, A. Power Flow Distribution Strategy for Improved Power Electronics Energy Efficiency in Battery Storage Systems: Development and Implementation in a Utility-Scale System. Energies 2018, 11, 533.

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