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Energies 2018, 11(2), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11020420

Coordination of Heat Pumps, Electric Vehicles and AGC for Efficient LFC in a Smart Hybrid Power System via SCA-Based Optimized FOPID Controllers

1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj 6617715177, Iran
2
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran 1983969411, Iran
3
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 5166616471, Iran
4
Engineering Faculty, Near East University, Nicosia 99138, Cyprus
5
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 January 2018 / Revised: 28 January 2018 / Accepted: 3 February 2018 / Published: 12 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Abstract

Due to the high price of fossil fuels, the increased carbon footprint in conventional generation units and the intermittent functionality of renewable units, alternative sources must contribute to the load frequency control (LFC) of the power system. To tackle the challenge, dealing with controllable loads, the ongoing study aims at efficient LFC in smart hybrid power systems. To achieve this goal, heat pumps (HPs) and electric vehicles (EVs) are selected as the most effective controllable loads to contribute to the LFC issue. In this regard, the EVs can be controlled in a bidirectional manner as known charging and discharging states under a smart structure. In addition, regarding the HPs, the power consumption is controllable. As the main task, this paper proposes a fractional order proportional integral differential (FOPID) controller for coordinated control of power consumption in HPs, the discharging state in EVs and automatic generation control (AGC). The parameters of the FOPID controllers are optimized simultaneously by the sine cosine algorithm (SCA), which is a new method for optimization problems. In the sequel, four scenarios, including step and random load changes, aggregated intermittent generated power from wind turbines, a random load change scenario and a sensitivity analysis scenario, are selected to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed SCA-based FOPID controllers in a hybrid two-area power system. View Full-Text
Keywords: load frequency control; fractional order proportional integral differential controller (FOPID); electric vehicle (EV); heat pump (HP); sine cosine algorithm (SCA); smart hybrid two-area power system load frequency control; fractional order proportional integral differential controller (FOPID); electric vehicle (EV); heat pump (HP); sine cosine algorithm (SCA); smart hybrid two-area power system
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Khezri, R.; Oshnoei, A.; Tarafdar Hagh, M.; Muyeen, S. Coordination of Heat Pumps, Electric Vehicles and AGC for Efficient LFC in a Smart Hybrid Power System via SCA-Based Optimized FOPID Controllers. Energies 2018, 11, 420.

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