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Energies 2018, 11(1), 99; doi:10.3390/en11010099

Renewable Energy Assisted Traffic Aware Cellular Base Station Energy Cooperation

Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Wah 47040, Pakistan
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3, Canada
Department of Information and Communication Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Korea
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 November 2017 / Revised: 27 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 2 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sources)
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With global concern for climate change, and for cutting down the energy cost, especially in off grid areas, use of renewable energy has been gaining widespread attention in many areas including cellular communication. The base station (BS) has emerged as a strong candidate for the integration of renewable energy sources (RES), particularly solar and wind. The incorporation of renewable energy opens many possibilities for energy conservation through strategies such as energy cooperation between BSs during the off-peak hours, when the energy harvested from renewable energy sources may become surplus. In this paper, we present the case for cellular BSs enabled with renewable energy sources (RES) to have an arrangement in which the BS provide surplus energy to a neighboring BS, thus minimizing the use of conventional energy. A realistic objective is developed for northern region of Pakistan, which entails modeling of solar panels and wind-turbine according to the average solar irradiation and wind speed of the region. We also model the dynamic load of the BS, which depicts temporal fluctuations with traffic variations. Based on these models we initiate an energy cooperation scheme between the BS in which an energy cost minimization framework is mathematically modeled and solved through the interior point method algorithm. Results are obtained for different times of the year for different number of base stations showing respective energy cost savings. View Full-Text
Keywords: Base station Cooperation; alternate energy; cellular networks Base station Cooperation; alternate energy; cellular networks

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ahmed, F.; Naeem, M.; Ejaz, W.; Iqbal, M.; Anpalagan, A.; Kim, H.S. Renewable Energy Assisted Traffic Aware Cellular Base Station Energy Cooperation. Energies 2018, 11, 99.

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