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Energies 2018, 11(1), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010140

Perceived and Reported Reliability of the Electricity Supply at Three Urban Locations in Indonesia

1
Department of Design, Production and Management, Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, UIN Suska Riau University, Jl. H.R. Soebrantas No. 115, Pekanbaru 28292, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 October 2017 / Revised: 2 January 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 6 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilience of Energy Systems 2017)
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Abstract

This paper focuses on the reliability of electricity supply at three different locations in Indonesia, namely in Sumatra, Timor, and Papua, through a comparison of reported indices of power reliability (SAIFI and SAIDI) and experimental results from user surveys and power measurements. The reason for this study is the lack of information about the actual, quantified reliability of power supplied by the main grid in Indonesia, while narratives of end-users indicate the reliability might be unsatisfactory. The study was executed using data from 114 randomly-selected respondents in the city of Pekanbaru in Sumatra, 65 in the city of Kupang in Timor and 26 in the city of Jayapura in Papua, totaling 205 respondents. These users experienced a higher unavailability of power delivered by the grid than expressed by the utility-reported SAIDI and SAIFI. Therefore, for this study, new indices are introduced, namely the Perceived (P) SAIDI and SAIFI, which are based on the frequency and duration of blackouts experienced by the users. It is concluded that the reported reliability indices do not always demonstrate the experience of the grid users. P-SAIFIs were 1.3 to 4.6 times higher in Pekanbaru and Kupang, respectively than the utility-reported SAIFIs for the same provinces. Also, P-SAIDIs were 2.6 to 3.9 times higher in Pekanbaru and Kupang, respectively, than the utilities’ SAIDIs. It is therefore not surprising that depending on the location, 14% to 65% of the users own a backup generator and that households are willing to pay $3 to $8 extra per monthly electricity bill or $1c–$3c per kWh for improved reliability. View Full-Text
Keywords: electricity; grid; Indonesia; reliability; user experiences electricity; grid; Indonesia; reliability; user experiences
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Kunaifi; Reinders, A. Perceived and Reported Reliability of the Electricity Supply at Three Urban Locations in Indonesia. Energies 2018, 11, 140.

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