Next Article in Journal
Application of Predictive Feedforward Compensator to Microalgae Production in a Raceway Reactor: A Simulation Study
Next Article in Special Issue
Characterization of Storage Sizing for an Off-Grid House in the US and the Netherlands
Previous Article in Journal
Evolving Microbial Communities in Cellulose-Fed Microbial Fuel Cell
Previous Article in Special Issue
Improving an Integer Linear Programming Model of an Ecovat Buffer by Adding Long-Term Planning
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Energies 2018, 11(1), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010122

Energy Flexibility from Large Prosumers to Support Distribution System Operation—A Technical and Legal Case Study on the Amsterdam ArenA Stadium

1
Faculty of Law, Groningen Centre of Energy Law (GCEL), University of Groningen, Oude Kijk in’t Jatstraat 26, 9712 EK Groningen, The Netherlands
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Twente, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede, The Netherlands
3
Electrical Energy Systems Group, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 24 December 2017 / Accepted: 25 December 2017 / Published: 4 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from International Workshop of Energy-Open)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5393 KB, uploaded 4 January 2018]   |  

Abstract

To deal with the rising integration of stochastic renewables and energy intensive distributed energy resources (DER) to the electricity network, alternatives to expensive network reinforcements are increasingly needed. An alternative solution often under consideration is integrating flexibility from the consumer side to system management. However, such a solution needs to be contemplated from different angles before it can be implemented in practice. To this end, this article considers a case study of the Amsterdam ArenA stadium and its surrounding network where flexibility is expected to be available to support the network in the future. The article studies the technical aspects of using this flexibility to determine to what extent, despite the different, orthogonal goals, the available flexibility can be used by various stakeholders in scenarios with a large load from electric vehicle charging points. Furthermore, a legal study is performed to determine the feasibility of the technical solutions proposed by analysing current European Union (EU) and Dutch law and focusing on the current agreements existing between the parties involved. The article shows that flexibility in the network provided by Amsterdam ArenA is able to significantly increase the number of charging points the network can accommodate. Nonetheless, while several uses of flexibility are feasible under current law, the use of flexibility provided by electric vehicles specifically faces several legal challenges in current arrangements. View Full-Text
Keywords: congestion management; demand side management (DSM); distribution system operation; electric vehicles; energy flexibility; legal framework; storage system congestion management; demand side management (DSM); distribution system operation; electric vehicles; energy flexibility; legal framework; storage system
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kuiken, D.; Más, H.F.; Haji Ghasemi, M.; Blaauwbroek, N.; Vo, T.H.; van der Klauw, T.; Nguyen, P.H. Energy Flexibility from Large Prosumers to Support Distribution System Operation—A Technical and Legal Case Study on the Amsterdam ArenA Stadium. Energies 2018, 11, 122.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top