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Energies 2017, 10(8), 1205; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10081205

Physical and Compression Properties of Pellets Manufactured with the Biomass of Five Woody Tropical Species of Costa Rica Torrefied at Different Temperatures and Times

1
Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Ingeniería Forestal, Apartado 159-7050, Cartago, Costa Rica
2
Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Centro de Investigación y de Servicios Químicos y Microbiológicos (CEQIATEC), Escuela de Química, Apartado 159-7050, Cartago, Costa Rica
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 5 August 2017 / Accepted: 8 August 2017 / Published: 14 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sources)
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Abstract

The purpose of the biomass torrefaction and pelletizing processes is to increase its energy properties, be environmentally friendly, decrease shipping costs, and make handling easier. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the density, internal density variation by X-ray densitometry, moisture content, water absorption, and compression force of torrefied biomass pellets of five wood species (Cupressus lusitanica, Dipterix panamensis, Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis, and Vochysia ferruginea) under three torrefaction temperature conditions (light, middle, and severe) and three torrefaction times (8, 10, and 12 min). The results showed that the bulk density of the pellets was 0.90–1.30 g/cm3. The density variation of the pellets was higher with torrefaction at 250 °C. The moisture content decreased with increasing torrefaction temperature from 3% to 1%. Water absorption was lower in the pellets torrefied at 250 °C. The compression force was lower in the pellets torrefied at 250 °C with approximate loads of 700 N. Based on the above results, it was concluded that pellets made with biomass torrefied at 200 °C have better energy properties and evaluated properties. According to these results, pellets fabricated with the torrefied biomass of tropical species can be used in stove, gas, and hydrogen production because the pellet presents adequate characteristics. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomass; torrefaction; densification; tropical woods biomass; torrefaction; densification; tropical woods
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Gaitán-Alvarez, J.; Moya, R.; Puente-Urbina, A.; Rodriguez-Zuñiga, A. Physical and Compression Properties of Pellets Manufactured with the Biomass of Five Woody Tropical Species of Costa Rica Torrefied at Different Temperatures and Times. Energies 2017, 10, 1205.

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