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Energies 2017, 10(8), 1147; doi:10.3390/en10081147

Capacity Decay Mechanism of the LCO + NMC532/Graphite Cells Combined with Post-Mortem Technique

National Active Distribution Network Technology Research Center, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
Collaborative Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles in Beijing, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
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Lithium ion batteries are widely used in portable electronics and transportations due to their high energy and high power with low cost. However, they suffer from capacity degradation during long cycling, thus making it urgent to study their decay mechanisms. Commercial 18650-type LiCoO2 + LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2/graphite cells are cycled at 1 C rate for 700 cycles, and a continuous post-mortem analysis is performed. Based on these tests, the decay mechanism of the cells is finally proposed. The changes of differential capacity curves of the full cells show that the loss of active materials, loss of lithium ions and cell polarization are the main factors contributing to capacity loss. Non-fully charging of the electrodes is also one of the reasons, but only takes up a minor portion. Impedance results indicate that the charge transfer resistance becomes larger during cycling, especially at low state of charge. Morphology and surface chemistry analysis demonstrates that the electrode particles after cycling exhibit some minor cracks and some additional layers are formed on surfaces of both the cathode and anode electrodes. All of these effects may contribute to the impedance increase, and consequently lead to degradation of the full cells. Thus, a good protection of the surface of the cathode and anode shows great potential to improve the capacity maintenance and prolong the cycle life of the cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: decay mechanism; long-term cycling; impedance increase; particle cracks; surface layer decay mechanism; long-term cycling; impedance increase; particle cracks; surface layer

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, L.; Jiang, J.; Zhang, W. Capacity Decay Mechanism of the LCO + NMC532/Graphite Cells Combined with Post-Mortem Technique. Energies 2017, 10, 1147.

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