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Energies 2017, 10(7), 966; doi:10.3390/en10070966

Quick Screening of Pareto-Optimal Operating Conditions for Expanding Solvent–Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Using Hybrid Multi-Objective Optimization Approach

Department of Climate and Energy Systems Engineering, Division of Sustainable Systems Engineering, Ewha Womans University, 52 Ewhayeodae-gil, Daehyeon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03760, Korea
Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, TX 78712, USA
Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, College of Earth and Mineral Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 April 2017 / Revised: 18 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 10 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sources)
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Solvent–steam mixture is a key factor in controlling the economic efficiency of the solvent-aided thermal injection process for producing bitumen in a highly viscous oil sands reservoir. This paper depicts a strategy to quickly provide trade-off operating conditions of the Expanding Solvent–Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (ES-SAGD) process based on Pareto-optimality. Response surface models are employed to evaluate multiple ES-SAGD scenarios at low computational costs. The surrogate models play a role of objective-estimators in the multi-objective optimization that provides qualified ES-SAGD scenarios regarding bitumen recovery, steam–energy efficiency, and solvent-energy efficiency. The developed hybrid approach detects positive or negative correlations among the performance indicators of the ES-SAGD process. The derived Pareto-optimal operating conditions give flexibility in field development planning and thereby help decision makers determine the operating parameters of the ES-SAGD process based on their preferences. View Full-Text
Keywords: oil sands; trade-off; ES-SAGD; Pareto-optimality; surrogate model oil sands; trade-off; ES-SAGD; Pareto-optimality; surrogate model

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Min, B.; Kannan, K.; Srinivasan, S. Quick Screening of Pareto-Optimal Operating Conditions for Expanding Solvent–Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Using Hybrid Multi-Objective Optimization Approach. Energies 2017, 10, 966.

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