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Energies 2017, 10(7), 882; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10070882

Impact Analysis of Demand Response Intensity and Energy Storage Size on Operation of Networked Microgrids

Department of Electrical Engineering, Incheon National University, 12-1 Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406840, Korea
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Academic Editors: Hongyu Wu and Amin Khodaei
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Energy Storage Applications in Smart Grid)
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Abstract

Integration of demand response (DR) programs and battery energy storage system (BESS) in microgrids are beneficial for both microgrid owners and consumers. The intensity of DR programs and BESS size can alter the operation of microgrids. Meanwhile, the optimal size for BESS units is linked with the uncertainties associated with renewable energy sources and load variations. Similarly, the participation of enrolled customers in DR programs is also uncertain and, among various other factors, uncertainty in market prices is a major cause. Therefore, in this paper, the impact of DR program intensity and BESS size on the operation of networked microgrids is analyzed while considering the prevailing uncertainties. The uncertainties associated with forecast load values, output of renewable generators, and market price are realized via the robust optimization method. Robust optimization has the capability to provide immunity against the worst-case scenario, provided the uncertainties lie within the specified bounds. The worst-case scenario of the prevailing uncertainties is considered for evaluating the feasibility of the proposed method. The two representative categories of DR programs, i.e., price-based and incentive-based DR programs are considered. The impact of change in DR intensity and BESS size on operation cost of the microgrid network, external power trading, internal power transfer, load profile of the network, and state-of-charge (SOC) of battery energy storage system (BESS) units is analyzed. Simulation results are analyzed to determine the integration of favorable DR program and/or BESS units for different microgrid networks with diverse objectives. View Full-Text
Keywords: battery energy storage system (BESS); demand response (DR); microgrid operation; networked microgrids; robust optimization battery energy storage system (BESS); demand response (DR); microgrid operation; networked microgrids; robust optimization
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Hussain, A.; Bui, V.-H.; Kim, H.-M. Impact Analysis of Demand Response Intensity and Energy Storage Size on Operation of Networked Microgrids. Energies 2017, 10, 882.

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