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Energies 2017, 10(7), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10070859

Integration of the Production Logging Tool and Production Data for Post-Fracturing Evaluation by the Ensemble Smoother

E&P Business Division, SK Innovation, Seoul 03188, Korea
Academic Editor: Alireza Bahadori
Received: 26 March 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oil and Gas Engineering)
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Abstract

A post-fracturing evaluation is essential to optimize a fracturing design for a multi-stage fractured well located in unconventional reservoirs. To accomplish this task, a production logging tool (PLT) can be utilized to provide the oil production rate of each fracturing stage. In this research, a practical method is proposed to integrate PLT and surface production data into a reservoir model. It applies the ensemble smoother for history-matching to integrate various kinds of dynamic data. To investigate the validity of the proposed method, three cases are designed according to the frequency of PLT surveys. Each fracture half-length calibrated by PLT data is similar to the true value, and the dynamic behavior also has the same trend as true production behavior. Integration with PLT data can reduce error ratios for fracture half-length down to 48%. In addition, it presents the applicability of reserve prediction and uncertainty assessment. It has been proven that the more frequently PLTs are surveyed, the more accurate the results. By sensitivity analysis of PLT frequency—a cost-effective strategy—a combination of only one PLT survey and continuous surface production data is employed to demonstrate this proposed concept. View Full-Text
Keywords: post-fracturing evaluation; history-matching; ensemble smoother (ES); multi-stage fracturing; unconventional reservoir; production logging tool (PLT); stochastic optimization post-fracturing evaluation; history-matching; ensemble smoother (ES); multi-stage fracturing; unconventional reservoir; production logging tool (PLT); stochastic optimization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Jung, S. Integration of the Production Logging Tool and Production Data for Post-Fracturing Evaluation by the Ensemble Smoother. Energies 2017, 10, 859.

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