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Energies 2017, 10(6), 743; doi:10.3390/en10060743

Seasonal Thermal-Energy Storage: A Critical Review on BTES Systems, Modeling, and System Design for Higher System Efficiency

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rui Xiong
Received: 24 February 2017 / Revised: 3 May 2017 / Accepted: 14 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Energy Storage Technologies and Their Applications (AESA))
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Abstract

Buildings consume approximately ¾ of the total electricity generated in the United States, contributing significantly to fossil fuel emissions. Sustainable and renewable energy production can reduce fossil fuel use, but necessitates storage for energy reliability in order to compensate for the intermittency of renewable energy generation. Energy storage is critical for success in developing a sustainable energy grid because it facilitates higher renewable energy penetration by mitigating the gap between energy generation and demand. This review analyzes recent case studies—numerical and field experiments—seen by borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) in space heating and domestic hot water capacities, coupled with solar thermal energy. System design, model development, and working principle(s) are the primary focus of this analysis. A synopsis of the current efforts to effectively model BTES is presented as well. The literature review reveals that: (1) energy storage is most effective when diurnal and seasonal storage are used in conjunction; (2) no established link exists between BTES computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models integrated with whole building energy analysis tools, rather than parameter-fit component models; (3) BTES has less geographical limitations than Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) and lower installation cost scale than hot water tanks and (4) BTES is more often used for heating than for cooling applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: borehole thermal energy storage; seasonal thermal energy storage; BTES; ground source heat pump (GSHP) transient system simulation tool (TRNSYS); EnergyPlus; diurnal storage; solar thermal; solar-coupled GSHP; system modeling; component modeling borehole thermal energy storage; seasonal thermal energy storage; BTES; ground source heat pump (GSHP) transient system simulation tool (TRNSYS); EnergyPlus; diurnal storage; solar thermal; solar-coupled GSHP; system modeling; component modeling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Lanahan, M.; Tabares-Velasco, P.C. Seasonal Thermal-Energy Storage: A Critical Review on BTES Systems, Modeling, and System Design for Higher System Efficiency. Energies 2017, 10, 743.

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