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Energies 2017, 10(4), 572; doi:10.3390/en10040572

PTC Self-Heating Experiments and Thermal Modeling of Lithium-Ion Battery Pack in Electric Vehicles

National Engineering Laboratory for Electric Vehicles, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
Collaborative Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles in Beijing, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hailong Li
Received: 10 March 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Energy Storage Technologies and Their Applications (AESA))


This paper proposes a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) self-heating method, in which EVs can be operated independently of external power source at low temperature, with a lithium-ion battery (LIB) pack discharging electricity to provide PTC material with power. Three comparative heating experiments have been carried out respectively. With charge/discharge tests implemented, results demonstrate the superiority of the self-heating method, proving that the discharge capability, especially the discharge capacity of the self-heated pack is better than that of the external power heated pack. In order to evaluate the heating effect of this method, further studies are conducted on temperature distribution uniformity in the heated pack. Firstly, a geometric model is established, and heat-generation rate of PTC materials and LIB are calculated. Then, thermal characteristics of the self-heating experiment processes are numerically simulated, validating the accuracy of our modeling and confirming that temperature distributions inside the pack after heating are kept in good uniformity. Therefore, the PTC self-heating method is verified to have a significant effect on the improvement of performance of LIB at low temperature. View Full-Text
Keywords: lithium-ion battery; PTC self-heating method; self-heating experiment; thermal modeling lithium-ion battery; PTC self-heating method; self-heating experiment; thermal modeling

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, C.; Jin, X.; Li, J. PTC Self-Heating Experiments and Thermal Modeling of Lithium-Ion Battery Pack in Electric Vehicles. Energies 2017, 10, 572.

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