Next Article in Journal
Evaluating Heat Flux Profiles in Aluminum Reheating Furnace with Regenerative Burner
Next Article in Special Issue
2D Numerical Simulation of Improving Wellbore Stability in Shale Using Nanoparticles Based Drilling Fluid
Previous Article in Journal
Methane Hydrate Formation in Marine Sediment from South China Sea with Different Water Saturations
Previous Article in Special Issue
Nano-Based Drilling Fluids: A Review
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2017, 10(4), 560; doi:10.3390/en10040560

Flow Behavior and Displacement Mechanisms of Nanoparticle Stabilized Foam Flooding for Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery

College of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dongsheng Wen
Received: 2 December 2016 / Revised: 15 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology for Oil and Gas Applications)

Abstract

In this study, nanoparticle stabilized foam experiments were performed in bulk tests, micromodels, and sandpacks at elevated temperatures and pressures to investigate the flow behavior and displacement mechanisms for enhanced heavy oil recovery. The results from the bulk tests showed that the stability of the foam and oil in water (O/W) emulsion improved when silica nanoparticles (SiO2) were added, compared with the anionic surfactant alone. Also, the SiO2 nanoparticles increased the dilatational viscoelasticity of the gas-water interface, which is an important fluid property and mechanism for improving heavy oil recovery. The micromodel studies demonstrated that several gas bubbles and oil droplets were stably dispersed during the nanoparticle stabilized foam flooding. The gas bubbles and oil droplets plug pores through capture-plugging and bridge-plugging, thereby increasing the sweep efficiency. The trapped residual oil is gradually pushed to the pores by the elastic forces of bubbles. Subsequently, the residual oil is pulled into oil threads by the flowing gas bubbles. Then, a greater improvement in displacement efficiency is obtained. The sandpack tests showed that the tertiary oil recovery of nanoparticle stabilized foam flooding can reach about 27% using 0.5 wt % SiO2 nanoparticles. The foam slug size of 0.3 pore volume (PV) and the gas liquid ratio (GLR) of 3:1 were found to be the optimum conditions in terms of heavy oil recovery by nanoparticle stabilized foam flooding in this study. A continuous nanoparticle dispersion and N2 could be more effective compared with the cyclic injection pattern. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticle stabilized foam flooding; enhanced oil recovery; heavy oil; flow behavior; micromodel test nanoparticle stabilized foam flooding; enhanced oil recovery; heavy oil; flow behavior; micromodel test
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lu, T.; Li, Z.; Zhou, Y. Flow Behavior and Displacement Mechanisms of Nanoparticle Stabilized Foam Flooding for Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery. Energies 2017, 10, 560.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top