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Energies 2017, 10(4), 416;

Robust Operation of Energy Storage System with Uncertain Load Profiles

Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 35 Baekbeom-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Patrik Thollander
Received: 31 December 2016 / Revised: 2 March 2017 / Accepted: 18 March 2017 / Published: 23 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Energy Efficiency)
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In this paper, we propose novel techniques to reduce total cost and peak load of factories from a customer point of view. We control energy storage system (ESS) to minimize the total electricity bill under the Korea commercial and industrial (KCI) tariff, which both considers peak load and time of use (ToU). Under the KCI tariff, the average peak load, which is the maximum among all average power consumptions measured every 15 min for the past 12 months, determines the monthly base cost, and thus peak load control is extremely critical. We aim to leverage ESS for both peak load reduction based on load prediction as well as energy arbitrage exploiting ToU. However, load prediction inevitably has uncertainty, which makes ESS operation challenging with KCI tariff. To tackle it, we apply robust optimization to minimize risk in a real environment. Our approach significantly reduces the peak load by 49.9% and the total cost by 10.8% compared to the case that does not consider load uncertainty. In doing this we also consider battery degradation cost and validate the practical use of the proposed techniques. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy storage system (ESS); battery wear-out cost; robust optimization; load uncertainty; peak load control energy storage system (ESS); battery wear-out cost; robust optimization; load uncertainty; peak load control

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kim, J.; Choi, Y.; Ryu, S.; Kim, H. Robust Operation of Energy Storage System with Uncertain Load Profiles. Energies 2017, 10, 416.

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