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Energies 2017, 10(2), 243; doi:10.3390/en10020243

An Optimized Energy Management Strategy for Preheating Vehicle-Mounted Li-ion Batteries at Subzero Temperatures

1
State Key Laboratory of Automotive Simulation and Control, Jilin University, Changchun 130022, China
2
FAW Bus and Coach Co., Ltd., Changchun 130033, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: K.T. Chau
Received: 5 December 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Collection)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5402 KB, uploaded 17 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

This paper presents an optimized energy management strategy for Li-ion power batteries used on electric vehicles (EVs) at low temperatures. In low-temperature environments, EVs suffer a sharp driving range loss resulting from the energy and power capability reduction of the battery. Simultaneously, because of Li plating, battery degradation becomes an increasing concern as the temperature drops. All these factors could greatly increase the total vehicle operation cost. Prior to battery charging and vehicle operating, preheating the battery to a battery-friendly temperature is an approach to promote energy utilization and reduce total cost. Based on the proposed LiFePO4 battery model, the total vehicle operation cost under certain driving cycles is quantified in the present paper. Then, given a certain ambient temperature, a target preheating temperature is optimized under the principle of minimizing total cost. As for the preheating method, a liquid heating system is also implemented on an electric bus. Simulation results show that the preheating process becomes increasingly necessary with decreasing ambient temperature, however, the preheating demand declines as driving range grows. Vehicle tests verify that the preheating management strategy proposed in this paper is able to save on total vehicle operation costs. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric vehicle (EV); battery heat generation; battery degradation; vehicle operation cost; preheating target temperature; heating system electric vehicle (EV); battery heat generation; battery degradation; vehicle operation cost; preheating target temperature; heating system
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Zhu, T.; Min, H.; Yu, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Xu, T.; Chen, Y.; Li, X.; Zhang, C. An Optimized Energy Management Strategy for Preheating Vehicle-Mounted Li-ion Batteries at Subzero Temperatures. Energies 2017, 10, 243.

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