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Energies 2017, 10(12), 2003; doi:10.3390/en10122003

Optimal Dispatching of Active Distribution Networks Based on Load Equilibrium

1
State Key Laboratory of New Energy Power System, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, China
2
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798-7356, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Abstract

This paper focuses on the optimal intraday scheduling of a distribution system that includes renewable energy (RE) generation, energy storage systems (ESSs), and thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs). This system also provides time-of-use pricing to customers. Unlike previous studies, this study attempts to examine how to optimize the allocation of electric energy and to improve the equilibrium of the load curve. Accordingly, we propose a concept of load equilibrium entropy to quantify the overall equilibrium of the load curve and reflect the allocation optimization of electric energy. Based on this entropy, we built a novel multi-objective optimal dispatching model to minimize the operational cost and maximize the load curve equilibrium. To aggregate TCLs into the optimization objective, we introduced the concept of a virtual power plant (VPP) and proposed a calculation method for VPP operating characteristics based on the equivalent thermal parameter model and the state-queue control method. The Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm was employed to solve the optimization problems. The simulation results illustrated that the proposed dispatching model can achieve cost reductions of system operations, peak load curtailment, and efficiency improvements, and also verified that the load equilibrium entropy can be used as a novel index of load characteristics. View Full-Text
Keywords: active distribution networks; intraday optimal dispatching; load equilibrium entropy; thermostatically controlled loads active distribution networks; intraday optimal dispatching; load equilibrium entropy; thermostatically controlled loads
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Han, X.; Zhou, M.; Li, G.; Lee, K.Y. Optimal Dispatching of Active Distribution Networks Based on Load Equilibrium. Energies 2017, 10, 2003.

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