Transactive-Market-Based Operation of Distributed Electrical Energy Storage with Grid Constraints
AbstractIn a transactive energy market, distributed energy resources (DERs) such as dispatchable distributed generators (DGs), electrical energy storages (EESs), distribution-scale load aggregators (LAs), and renewable energy sources (RESs) have to earn their share of supply or demand through a bidding process. In such a market, the distribution system operator (DSO) may optimally schedule these resources, first in a forward market, i.e., day-ahead, and in a real-time market later on, while maintaining a reliable and economic distribution grid. In this paper, an efficient day-ahead scheduling of these resources, in the presence of interaction with wholesale market at the locational marginal price (LMP), is studied. Due to inclusion of EES units with integer constraints, a detailed mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulation that incorporates simplified DistFlow equations to account for grid constraints is proposed. Convex quadratic line and transformer apparent power flow constraints have been linearized using an outer approximation. The proposed model schedules DERs based on distribution locational marginal price (DLMP), which is obtained as the Lagrange multiplier of the real power balance constraint at each distribution bus while maintaining physical grid constraints such as line limits, transformer limits, and bus voltage magnitudes. Case studies are performed on a modified IEEE 13-bus system with high DER penetration. Simulation results show the validity and efficiency of the proposed model. View Full-Text
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Faqiry, M.N.; Edmonds, L.; Zhang, H.; Khodaei, A.; Wu, H. Transactive-Market-Based Operation of Distributed Electrical Energy Storage with Grid Constraints. Energies 2017, 10, 1891.
Faqiry MN, Edmonds L, Zhang H, Khodaei A, Wu H. Transactive-Market-Based Operation of Distributed Electrical Energy Storage with Grid Constraints. Energies. 2017; 10(11):1891.Chicago/Turabian Style
Faqiry, M. N.; Edmonds, Lawryn; Zhang, Haifeng; Khodaei, Amin; Wu, Hongyu. 2017. "Transactive-Market-Based Operation of Distributed Electrical Energy Storage with Grid Constraints." Energies 10, no. 11: 1891.
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