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Energies 2017, 10(11), 1891; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10111891

Transactive-Market-Based Operation of Distributed Electrical Energy Storage with Grid Constraints

1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
2
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80210, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 11 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Energy Storage Applications in Smart Grid)
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Abstract

In a transactive energy market, distributed energy resources (DERs) such as dispatchable distributed generators (DGs), electrical energy storages (EESs), distribution-scale load aggregators (LAs), and renewable energy sources (RESs) have to earn their share of supply or demand through a bidding process. In such a market, the distribution system operator (DSO) may optimally schedule these resources, first in a forward market, i.e., day-ahead, and in a real-time market later on, while maintaining a reliable and economic distribution grid. In this paper, an efficient day-ahead scheduling of these resources, in the presence of interaction with wholesale market at the locational marginal price (LMP), is studied. Due to inclusion of EES units with integer constraints, a detailed mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulation that incorporates simplified DistFlow equations to account for grid constraints is proposed. Convex quadratic line and transformer apparent power flow constraints have been linearized using an outer approximation. The proposed model schedules DERs based on distribution locational marginal price (DLMP), which is obtained as the Lagrange multiplier of the real power balance constraint at each distribution bus while maintaining physical grid constraints such as line limits, transformer limits, and bus voltage magnitudes. Case studies are performed on a modified IEEE 13-bus system with high DER penetration. Simulation results show the validity and efficiency of the proposed model. View Full-Text
Keywords: distribution system market; transactive energy; electrical energy storage; distributed generation; load aggregation distribution system market; transactive energy; electrical energy storage; distributed generation; load aggregation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Faqiry, M.N.; Edmonds, L.; Zhang, H.; Khodaei, A.; Wu, H. Transactive-Market-Based Operation of Distributed Electrical Energy Storage with Grid Constraints. Energies 2017, 10, 1891.

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