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Energies 2017, 10(10), 1641; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101641

Co-Design Based Lateral Motion Control of All-Wheel-Independent-Drive Electric Vehicles with Network Congestion

1
National Engineering Laboratory for Electric Vehicles and Collaborative Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles in Beijing, Beijing Institute of Technology (BIT), Beijing 100081, China
2
Department of Multisource Propulsion System, Faculty of Automotive and Construction Machinery Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology (WUT), 02-524 Warsaw, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 September 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract

All-wheel-independent-drive electric vehicles (AWID-EVs) have considerable advantages in terms of energy optimization, drivability and driving safety due to the remarkable actuation flexibility of electric motors. However, in their current implementations, various real-time data in the vehicle control system are exchanged via a controller area network (CAN), which causes network congestion and network-induced delays. These problems could lead to systemic instability and make the system integration difficult. The goal of this paper is to provide a design methodology that can cope with all these challenges for the lateral motion control of AWID-EVs. Firstly, a continuous-time model of an AWID-EV is derived. Then an expression for determining upper and lower bounds on the delays caused by CAN is presented and with which a discrete-time model of the closed-loop CAN system is derived. An expression on the bandwidth utilization is introduced as well. Thirdly, a co-design based scheme combining a period-dependent linear quadratic regulator (LQR) and a dynamic period scheduler is designed for the resulting model and the stability criterion is also derived. The results of simulations and hard-in-loop (HIL) experiments show that the proposed methodology can effectively guarantee the stability of the vehicle lateral motion control while obviously declining the network congestion. View Full-Text
Keywords: all-wheel-independent-drive (AWID); lateral motion control; network congestion; co-design of scheduling and control; dynamic period scheduling all-wheel-independent-drive (AWID); lateral motion control; network congestion; co-design of scheduling and control; dynamic period scheduling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Cao, W.; Liu, H.; Lin, C.; Chang, Y.; Liu, Z.; Szumanowski, A. Co-Design Based Lateral Motion Control of All-Wheel-Independent-Drive Electric Vehicles with Network Congestion. Energies 2017, 10, 1641.

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