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Energies 2017, 10(10), 1640; doi:10.3390/en10101640

Transactive Demand Side Management Programs in Smart Grids with High Penetration of EVs

1
Department of Computer Science, The State University of New York Korea, Incheon 21985, Korea
2
Department of Computer Science, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
3
Department of Electric Power and Energy Systems, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden
4
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada
A preliminary version of this paper was presented at The 7th IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm 2016) in Sydney, Australia, November 2016.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 September 2017 / Revised: 6 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Management in Vehicle–Grid–Traffic Nexus)
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Abstract

Due to environmental concerns, economic issues, and emerging new loads, such as electrical vehicles (EVs), the importance of demand side management (DSM) programs has increased in recent years. DSM programs using a dynamic real-time pricing (RTP) method can help to adaptively control the electricity consumption. However, the existing RTP methods, particularly when they consider the EVs and the power system constraints, have many limitations, such as computational complexity and the need for centralized control. Therefore, a new transactive DSM program is proposed in this paper using an imperfect competition model with high EV penetration levels. In particular, a heuristic two-stage iterative method, considering the influence of decisions made independently by customers to minimize their own costs, is developed to find the market equilibrium quickly in a distributed manner. Simulations in the IEEE 37-bus system with 1141 customers and 670 EVs are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method can better manage the EVs and elastic appliances than the existing methods in terms of power constraints and cost. Also, the proposed method can solve the optimization problem quick enough to run in real-time. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrical vehicle; oligopoly market; power system management; smart grids; supply and demand electrical vehicle; oligopoly market; power system management; smart grids; supply and demand
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hasanpor Divshali, P.; Choi, B.J.; Liang, H.; Söder, L. Transactive Demand Side Management Programs in Smart Grids with High Penetration of EVs. Energies 2017, 10, 1640.

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