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Energies 2017, 10(1), 71; doi:10.3390/en10010071

The Effect of the Angle of Inclination on the Efficiency in a Medium-Temperature Flat Plate Solar Collector

National Center of Research and Develop of Technology-TecNM-SEP, Interior Internado Palmira s/n, Cuernavaca 62490, Morelos, Mexico
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Academic Editor: José Antonio Sánchez Pérez
Received: 20 August 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 9 January 2017
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Abstract

In this experimental work, the effects of the inclination angle β and the (TiTa)/G on the efficiency and the UL-value were investigated on a medium-temperature flat plate solar collector. The experiments were based on steady-state energy balance, by heat flow calorimetry at indoor conditions and considering the standard American National Standard Institute/American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ANSI/ASHRAE) 93-2010. The solar radiation was emulated by the Joule effect using a proportional integral derivative (PID) control considering two conditions of the absorber temperature, Case 1: (ToTi) > 0, and Case 2: (ToTi) = 0. The inclination angles were 0°–90° and the (TiTa)/G were 0.044–0.083 m2·°C/W and 0.124–0.235 for Case 1 and Case 2, respectively. The variations of β and (TiTa)/G cause efficiency changes up to 0.37–0.45 (21.6%) and 0.31–0.45 (45.0%), respectively, for Case 1. Also, the UL(β) reached changes up to 10.1–12.0 W/m2·°C (19.2%) and 8.4–12.0 W/m2·°C (41.7%), respectively, for Case 1. The most significant changes of UL(β)/UL(90°) vs. β were 8.0% at the horizontal position for Case 1, while for Case 2, the maximum change was 1.8% only. Therefore, the changes of the inclination angle cause significant variations of the convective flow patterns within the collector, which leads to considerable variation of the collector efficiency and its UL value. View Full-Text
Keywords: covered solar collectors; tilt solar collector; inclined solar collector; overall heat loss coefficient covered solar collectors; tilt solar collector; inclined solar collector; overall heat loss coefficient
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Montoya-Marquez, O.; Flores-Prieto, J.J. The Effect of the Angle of Inclination on the Efficiency in a Medium-Temperature Flat Plate Solar Collector. Energies 2017, 10, 71.

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