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Energies 2017, 10(1), 37; doi:10.3390/en10010037

Multi-Time Scale Control of Demand Flexibility in Smart Distribution Networks

1
Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415, USA
2
Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark
3
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paras Mandal
Received: 13 October 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 December 2016 / Published: 1 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Microgrids: Developing the Intelligent Power Grid of Tomorrow)
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Abstract

This paper presents a multi-timescale control strategy to deploy electric vehicle (EV) demand flexibility for simultaneously providing power balancing, grid congestion management, and economic benefits to participating actors. First, an EV charging problem is investigated from consumer, aggregator, and distribution system operator’s perspectives. A hierarchical control architecture (HCA) comprising scheduling, coordinative, and adaptive layers is then designed to realize their coordinative goal. This is realized by integrating multi-time scale controls that work from a day-ahead scheduling up to real-time adaptive control. The performance of the developed method is investigated with high EV penetration in a typical residential distribution grid. The simulation results demonstrate that HCA efficiently utilizes demand flexibility stemming from EVs to solve grid unbalancing and congestions with simultaneous maximization of economic benefits to the participating actors. This is ensured by enabling EV participation in day-ahead, balancing, and regulation markets. For the given network configuration and pricing structure, HCA ensures the EV owners to get paid up to five times the cost they were paying without control. View Full-Text
Keywords: congestion management; demand response; electric vehicle; hierarchical control; microgrid; smart charging; smart grid congestion management; demand response; electric vehicle; hierarchical control; microgrid; smart charging; smart grid
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Bhattarai, B.P.; Myers, K.S.; Bak-Jensen, B.; Paudyal, S. Multi-Time Scale Control of Demand Flexibility in Smart Distribution Networks. Energies 2017, 10, 37.

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