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Energies, Volume 1, Issue 3 (December 2008), Pages 93-153

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Isoperibolic Titration Calorimetry as a Tool for the Prediction of Thermodynamic Properties of Cyclodextrins
Energies 2008, 1(3), 93-104; doi:10.3390/en1030093
Received: 4 July 2008 / Revised: 11 October 2008 / Accepted: 14 October 2008 / Published: 16 October 2008
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Abstract
The interaction of guest molecules ranging from pentan-1-ol to octan-1-ol with α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) in water of has been studied calorimetrically at 283.15, 288.15, 293.15, 298.15 and 308.15 K with an isoperibolic titration calorimeter designed in our laboratory. The calorimetric [...] Read more.
The interaction of guest molecules ranging from pentan-1-ol to octan-1-ol with α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) in water of has been studied calorimetrically at 283.15, 288.15, 293.15, 298.15 and 308.15 K with an isoperibolic titration calorimeter designed in our laboratory. The calorimetric method employed allows the determination of the thermodynamic parameters characterizing the binding process, ΔG°m, ΔH°m, ΔS°mand ΔCp°, namely free energy, enthalpy, and calorific capacity. These results show that in the temperature range investigated, the entropy change increased with chain length. This is in line with what is expected for a hydrophobic dehydration process. However, that effect is not expected to lead to the more pronounced negative CH2-increment observed for nc > 5 or 6. As for many other ligand binding processes, we can observe a significant enthalpy - entropy compensation for this system, both with respect to temperature and structure. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Opportunities for a Bio-based Economy in the Netherlands
Energies 2008, 1(3), 105-119; doi:10.3390/en1030105
Received: 18 September 2008 / Revised: 31 October 2008 / Accepted: 3 November 2008 / Published: 12 November 2008
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (90 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The shift to a bio-based economy for the Netherlands is not only required because of climate change, but also for industrial strategy reasons. Traditional strongholds of the Dutch economy like the Rotterdam harbour, the agricultural sector (including the greenhouse sector, and food [...] Read more.
The shift to a bio-based economy for the Netherlands is not only required because of climate change, but also for industrial strategy reasons. Traditional strongholds of the Dutch economy like the Rotterdam harbour, the agricultural sector (including the greenhouse sector, and food and feed industries) and the petrochemical industry will be affected by the new economic realities, and it is precisely to these sectors that a bio-based economy will offer new opportunities. Full article
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Open AccessReview What You Should Know About Carbon Markets
Energies 2008, 1(3), 120-153; doi:10.3390/en1030120
Received: 15 October 2008 / Revised: 16 December 2008 / Accepted: 16 December 2008 / Published: 17 December 2008
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (246 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol, carbon trading has been in continuous expansion. In this paper, we review the origins of carbon trading in order to understand how carbon trading works in Europe and, specifically, the functioning of the [...] Read more.
Since the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol, carbon trading has been in continuous expansion. In this paper, we review the origins of carbon trading in order to understand how carbon trading works in Europe and, specifically, the functioning of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and the workings of several spot, futures and options markets where European Union Allowances are traded. As well, the linking of the EU ETS with the other United Nations carbon markets is also studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Solutions in the Era of Climate Change)

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