Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(7), 2537-2549; doi:10.3390/ijerph9072537
Article

Commensal Pseudomonas Species Isolated from Wastewater and Freshwater Milieus in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, as Reservoir of Antibiotic Resistant Determinants

1email, 1email, 2email, 1email and 1,* email
Received: 24 May 2012; in revised form: 12 July 2012 / Accepted: 12 July 2012 / Published: 23 July 2012
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Pseudomonas species are opportunistic pathogens with implications in a wide range of diseases including cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anaemia. Because of their status as multidrug resistant (MDR) and extremely drug resistant (XDR) bacteria Pseudomonas species represent a threat to public health. Prevalence, antibiogram and associated antibiotic resistant genes of Pseudomonas species isolated from freshwater and mixed liquor environments in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were assessed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based technique was used to identify the isolates and screen for antibiotic resistant genes. The result shows occurrence of Pseudomonas spp. in freshwater and mixed liquor as follows: 71.42% and 37.5% (P. putida), 14.28% and 31.25% (P. flourescens), 7.14% and 6.25% (P. aeruginosa) and 7.14% and 25% for other Pseudomonas species respectively. Disk diffusion antibiogram of the Pseudomonas isolates from the two locations showed 100% resistance to penicillin, oxacillin, clindamycin, rifampicin and 100% susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin with varied percentage resistances to cephalothin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, and ampicillin. The blaTEM antibiotic resistant gene was detected in 12.5% of P. putida, 57.14% of P. fluorescens, 100% P. aeruginosa and 40% in other Pseudomonas species. Similarly, Integrons conserved segment were detected in 12.5% of P. putida, 57.14% of P. fluorescens, 100% of P. aeruginosa and 40% of other Pseudomonas species. The presence of blaTEM gene and integrons conserved segment in some of the isolates is worrisome and suggest Pseudomonas species as important reservoirs of multidrug resistance genes in the Eastern Cape Province environment.
Keywords: Pseudomonas; commensal; multidrug resistant genes; integron; blaTEM
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MDPI and ACS Style

Igbinosa, I.H.; Nwodo, U.U.; Sosa, A.; Tom, M.; Okoh, A.I. Commensal Pseudomonas Species Isolated from Wastewater and Freshwater Milieus in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, as Reservoir of Antibiotic Resistant Determinants. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 2537-2549.

AMA Style

Igbinosa IH, Nwodo UU, Sosa A, Tom M, Okoh AI. Commensal Pseudomonas Species Isolated from Wastewater and Freshwater Milieus in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, as Reservoir of Antibiotic Resistant Determinants. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(7):2537-2549.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Igbinosa, Isoken H.; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Sosa, Anibal; Tom, Mvuyo; Okoh, Anthony I. 2012. "Commensal Pseudomonas Species Isolated from Wastewater and Freshwater Milieus in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, as Reservoir of Antibiotic Resistant Determinants." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 7: 2537-2549.


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