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Vitamin D Beliefs and Associations with Sunburns, Sun Exposure, and Sun Protection
Center for Health Behavior Research, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 110 Blockley Hall, 423 Guardian Ave., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Emory Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30222, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 April 2012; in revised form: 12 June 2012 / Accepted: 28 June 2012 / Published: 4 July 2012
Abstract: The main objective of this study was to examine certain beliefs about vitamin D and associations with sun exposure, sun protection behaviors, and sunburns. A total of 3,922 lifeguards, pool managers, and parents completed a survey in 2006 about beliefs regarding vitamin D and sun-related behaviors. Multivariate ordinal regression analyses and linear regression analysis were used to examine associations of beliefs and other variables. Results revealed that Non-Caucasian lifeguards and pool managers were less likely to agree that they needed to go out in the sun to get enough vitamin D. Lifeguards and parents who were non-Caucasian were less likely to report that sunlight helped the body to produce vitamin D. A stronger belief about the need to go out in the sun to get enough vitamin D predicted more sun exposure for lifeguards. For parents, a stronger belief that they can get enough vitamin D from foods predicted greater sun protection and a stronger belief that sunlight helps the body produce vitamin D predicted lower sun exposure. This study provides information regarding vitamin D beliefs and their association with certain sun related behaviors across different demographic groups that can inform education efforts about vitamin D and sun protection.
Keywords: sun exposure habits; vitamin D knowledge; sunscreen use; sun protection behavior
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MDPI and ACS Style
Kim, B.H.; Glanz, K.; Nehl, E.J. Vitamin D Beliefs and Associations with Sunburns, Sun Exposure, and Sun Protection. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 2386-2395.
Kim BH, Glanz K, Nehl EJ. Vitamin D Beliefs and Associations with Sunburns, Sun Exposure, and Sun Protection. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(7):2386-2395.
Kim, Bang Hyun; Glanz, Karen; Nehl, Eric J. 2012. "Vitamin D Beliefs and Associations with Sunburns, Sun Exposure, and Sun Protection." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 7: 2386-2395.