Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(6), 2092-2107; doi:10.3390/ijerph9062092
Article

Prevalence of Multiple Antibiotics Resistant (MAR) Pseudomonas Species in the Final Effluents of Three Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities in South Africa

1 Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Western Delta University, P.M.B. 10, Oghara, Delta State, Nigeria 2 Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa 3 Department of Microbiology, Ambrose Alli University, P.M.B. 14, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria 4 Department of Basic Sciences, Benson Idahosa University, P.M.B. 1100, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 April 2012; in revised form: 11 May 2012 / Accepted: 14 May 2012 / Published: 1 June 2012
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Abstract: The final effluents of three (Alice, Dimbaza, and East London) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were evaluated to determine their physicochemical quality and prevalence of multiple antibiotics resistant (MAR) Pseudomonas species, between August 2007 and July 2008. The annual mean total Pseudomonas count (TPC) was 1.20 × 104 (cfu/100 mL), 1.08 × 104 (cfu/100 mL), and 2.66 × 104 (cfu/100 mL), for the Alice, Dimbaza, and East London WWTPs respectively. The effluents were generally compliant with recommended limits for pH, temperature, TDS, DO, nitrite and nitrate; but fell short of target standards for turbidity, COD, and phosphate. The tested isolates were highly sensitive to gentamicin (100%), ofloxacin (100%), clindamycin (90%), erythromycin (90%) and nitrofurantoin (80%); whereas high resistance was observed against the penicillins (90–100%), rifampin (90%), sulphamethoxazole (90%) and the cephems (70%). MAR index ranged between 0.26 and 0.58. The study demonstrated that MAR Pseudomonas species were quite prevalent in the final effluents of WWTPs in South Africa; and this can lead to serious health risk for communities that depend on the effluent-receiving waters for sundry purposes.
Keywords: Pseudomonas; antibiogram; multiple-antibiotic-resistance; wastewater effluent

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MDPI and ACS Style

Odjadjare, E.E.; Igbinosa, E.O.; Mordi, R.; Igere, B.; Igeleke, C.L.; Okoh, A.I. Prevalence of Multiple Antibiotics Resistant (MAR) Pseudomonas Species in the Final Effluents of Three Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities in South Africa. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 2092-2107.

AMA Style

Odjadjare EE, Igbinosa EO, Mordi R, Igere B, Igeleke CL, Okoh AI. Prevalence of Multiple Antibiotics Resistant (MAR) Pseudomonas Species in the Final Effluents of Three Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities in South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(6):2092-2107.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Odjadjare, Emmanuel E.; Igbinosa, Etinosa O.; Mordi, Raphael; Igere, Bright; Igeleke, Clara L.; Okoh, Anthony I. 2012. "Prevalence of Multiple Antibiotics Resistant (MAR) Pseudomonas Species in the Final Effluents of Three Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities in South Africa." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 6: 2092-2107.

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