Next Article in Journal
Previous Article in Journal
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(6), 2092-2107; doi:10.3390/ijerph9062092
Article

Prevalence of Multiple Antibiotics Resistant (MAR) Pseudomonas Species in the Final Effluents of Three Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities in South Africa

1,2,* , 2,3
, 4
, 1
, 4
 and 2
Received: 11 April 2012; in revised form: 11 May 2012 / Accepted: 14 May 2012 / Published: 1 June 2012
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [254 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: The final effluents of three (Alice, Dimbaza, and East London) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were evaluated to determine their physicochemical quality and prevalence of multiple antibiotics resistant (MAR) Pseudomonas species, between August 2007 and July 2008. The annual mean total Pseudomonas count (TPC) was 1.20 × 104 (cfu/100 mL), 1.08 × 104 (cfu/100 mL), and 2.66 × 104 (cfu/100 mL), for the Alice, Dimbaza, and East London WWTPs respectively. The effluents were generally compliant with recommended limits for pH, temperature, TDS, DO, nitrite and nitrate; but fell short of target standards for turbidity, COD, and phosphate. The tested isolates were highly sensitive to gentamicin (100%), ofloxacin (100%), clindamycin (90%), erythromycin (90%) and nitrofurantoin (80%); whereas high resistance was observed against the penicillins (90–100%), rifampin (90%), sulphamethoxazole (90%) and the cephems (70%). MAR index ranged between 0.26 and 0.58. The study demonstrated that MAR Pseudomonas species were quite prevalent in the final effluents of WWTPs in South Africa; and this can lead to serious health risk for communities that depend on the effluent-receiving waters for sundry purposes.
Keywords: Pseudomonas; antibiogram; multiple-antibiotic-resistance; wastewater effluent Pseudomonas; antibiogram; multiple-antibiotic-resistance; wastewater effluent
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Odjadjare, E.E.; Igbinosa, E.O.; Mordi, R.; Igere, B.; Igeleke, C.L.; Okoh, A.I. Prevalence of Multiple Antibiotics Resistant (MAR) Pseudomonas Species in the Final Effluents of Three Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities in South Africa. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 2092-2107.

AMA Style

Odjadjare EE, Igbinosa EO, Mordi R, Igere B, Igeleke CL, Okoh AI. Prevalence of Multiple Antibiotics Resistant (MAR) Pseudomonas Species in the Final Effluents of Three Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities in South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(6):2092-2107.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Odjadjare, Emmanuel E.; Igbinosa, Etinosa O.; Mordi, Raphael; Igere, Bright; Igeleke, Clara L.; Okoh, Anthony I. 2012. "Prevalence of Multiple Antibiotics Resistant (MAR) Pseudomonas Species in the Final Effluents of Three Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities in South Africa." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 6: 2092-2107.



Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert