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Psychotic Symptoms in Kenya – Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Relationship with Common Mental Disorders
Director, WHO Collaborating Centre (Mental Health), Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London, PO 35, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK
Consultant Psychiatrist, Upper Hill Medical Centre, Nairobi, Kenya
Consultant Psychiatrist, The Nairobi Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya
Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
Ministry of Health, Survey Department, Nairobi, Kenya
Mildmay International, Kisumu, Kenya
Director of Policy & Research, UK Drug Policy Commission, London, UK
Research Director, National Centre for Social Research (NatCen), London, UK
Director of Mental Health, Ministry of Health, Kenya
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 March 2012; in revised form: 14 April 2012 / Accepted: 20 April 2012 / Published: 7 May 2012
Abstract: There have been few epidemiological surveys to establish prevalence and associated risk factors of psychosis in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper reports a population- based epidemiological survey in rural Kenya of the prevalence of psychotic symptoms and their relationship with demographic, socio-economic and other risk factors. A random sample of 2% of all adults living in Maseno, Kisumu District of Nyanza province, Kenya (50,000 population) were studied, aiming for a sample size of 1,000 people. The psychosis screening questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in the preceding twelve months. The response rate was 87.6%. The prevalence of single psychotic symptoms in rural Kenya was 8% of the adult population, but only 0.6% had two symptoms and none had three or more psychotic symptoms in this sample size. Psychotic symptoms were evenly distributed across this relatively poor rural population and were significantly associated with presence of common mental disorders, and to a lesser extent with poor physical health and housing type. We conclude that single psychotic symptoms are relatively common in rural Kenya and rates are elevated in those with CMD, poor physical health and poor housing.
Keywords: epidemiology; Kenya; psychosis; development
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Jenkins, R.; Njenga, F.; Okonji, M.; Kigamwa, P.; Baraza, M.; Ayuyo, J.; Singleton, N.; McManus, S.; Kiima, D. Psychotic Symptoms in Kenya – Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Relationship with Common Mental Disorders. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 1748-1756.
Jenkins R, Njenga F, Okonji M, Kigamwa P, Baraza M, Ayuyo J, Singleton N, McManus S, Kiima D. Psychotic Symptoms in Kenya – Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Relationship with Common Mental Disorders. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(5):1748-1756.
Jenkins, Rachel; Njenga, Frank; Okonji, Marx; Kigamwa, Pius; Baraza, Makheti; Ayuyo, James; Singleton, Nicola; McManus, Sally; Kiima, David. 2012. "Psychotic Symptoms in Kenya – Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Relationship with Common Mental Disorders." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 5: 1748-1756.