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Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, The University of Arizona, 1515 N. Campbell Ave., Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
Division of Community, Environment and Policy, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
Department of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Instituto Tecnológico de Sonora, 5 de Febrero 818 Sur, Zona Centro, Cd. Obregon, Sonora 85000, Mexico
Department of Scientific and Technological Research, University of Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000, Mexico
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 January 2012; in revised form: 20 March 2012 / Accepted: 20 March 2012 / Published: 26 March 2012
Abstract: The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES) was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic) and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L) whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001). Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated.
Keywords: arsenic; urine; water; beverages; metabolite; intake; BAsES
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Roberge, J.; O’Rourke, M.K.; Meza-Montenegro, M.M.; Gutiérrez-Millán, L.E.; Burgess, J.L.; Harris, R.B. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 1051-1067.
Roberge J, O’Rourke MK, Meza-Montenegro MM, Gutiérrez-Millán LE, Burgess JL, Harris RB. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(4):1051-1067.
Roberge, Jason; O’Rourke, Mary Kay; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis Enrique; Burgess, Jefferey L.; Harris, Robin B. 2012. "Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 4: 1051-1067.