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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(3), 995-1017; doi:10.3390/ijerph9030995
Article

Combining Geostatistics with Moran’s I Analysis for Mapping Soil Heavy Metals in Beijing, China

1,2
, 1,* , 3
, 1
 and 3
1 Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry, Beijing 100089, China 2 Department of Environmental Engineering, Taiyuan University, Taiyuan 030009, China 3 Department of Land Resources and Management, College of Natural Resources and Environment Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 January 2012 / Revised: 4 March 2012 / Accepted: 6 March 2012 / Published: 19 March 2012
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Abstract

Production of high quality interpolation maps of heavy metals is important for risk assessment of environmental pollution. In this paper, the spatial correlation characteristics information obtained from Moran’s I analysis was used to supplement the traditional geostatistics. According to Moran’s I analysis, four characteristics distances were obtained and used as the active lag distance to calculate the semivariance. Validation of the optimality of semivariance demonstrated that using the two distances where the Moran’s I and the standardized Moran’s I, Z(I) reached a maximum as the active lag distance can improve the fitting accuracy of semivariance. Then, spatial interpolation was produced based on the two distances and their nested model. The comparative analysis of estimation accuracy and the measured and predicted pollution status showed that the method combining geostatistics with Moran’s I analysis was better than traditional geostatistics. Thus, Moran’s I analysis is a useful complement for geostatistics to improve the spatial interpolation accuracy of heavy metals.
Keywords: geostatistics; Moran’s I analysis; heavy metals; Beijing geostatistics; Moran’s I analysis; heavy metals; Beijing
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Huo, X.-N.; Li, H.; Sun, D.-F.; Zhou, L.-D.; Li, B.-G. Combining Geostatistics with Moran’s I Analysis for Mapping Soil Heavy Metals in Beijing, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 995-1017.

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