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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(3), 746-759; doi:10.3390/ijerph9030746
Article

Geographical Variation in Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Stool, Cow-Dung and Drinking Water

1,* , 2
, 3
, 4
, 1
 and 1
1 Division of Global Health (IHCAR), Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Nobels väg 9, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden 2 Indian Initiative for Management of Antibiotic Resistance (IIMAR), Department of Environmental Medicine, R.D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain 456 006, India 3 Department of Microbiology, Super Religare Laboratories Limited, Kalinga Hospital, Bhubaneswar 751 023, India 4 Department of Microbiology, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences and School of Biotechnology, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar 751 024, India
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 January 2012 / Revised: 20 February 2012 / Accepted: 28 February 2012 / Published: 2 March 2012
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Abstract

Little information is available on relationships between the biophysical environment and antibiotic resistance. This study was conducted to investigate the antibiotic resistance pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from child stool samples, cow-dung and drinking water from the non-coastal (230 households) and coastal (187 households) regions of Odisha, India. Susceptibility testing of E. coli isolates (n = 696) to the following antibiotics: tetracycline, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefixime, cotrimoxazole, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and nalidixic acid was performed by the disk diffusion method. Ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates (n = 83). Resistance to at least one antibiotic was detected in 90% or more of the E. coli isolates. Ciprofloxacin MIC values ranged from 8 to 32 µg/mL. The odds ratio (OR) of resistance in E. coli isolates from children’s stool (OR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.18–8.01), cow-dung (OR = 3.6, 95% CI 1.59–8.03, P = 0.002) and drinking water (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.00–14.44, P = 0.049) were higher in non-coastal compared to coastal region. Similarly, the co-resistance in cow-dung (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.39–4.37, P = 0.002) and drinking water (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.36–7.41, P = 0.008) as well as the multi-resistance in cow-dung (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.12–4.34, P = 0.022) and drinking water (OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.06–7.07, P = 0.036) were also higher in the non-coastal compared to the coastal region.
Keywords: antibiotic resistance; non-coastal; coastal; ciprofloxacin resistance; Odisha; India antibiotic resistance; non-coastal; coastal; ciprofloxacin resistance; Odisha; India
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sahoo, K.C.; Tamhankar, A.J.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P.S.; Klintz, S.R.; Lundborg, C.S. Geographical Variation in Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Stool, Cow-Dung and Drinking Water. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 746-759.

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