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Geographical Variation in Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Stool, Cow-Dung and Drinking Water
Division of Global Health (IHCAR), Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Nobels väg 9, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
Indian Initiative for Management of Antibiotic Resistance (IIMAR), Department of Environmental Medicine, R.D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain 456 006, India
Department of Microbiology, Super Religare Laboratories Limited, Kalinga Hospital, Bhubaneswar 751 023, India
Department of Microbiology, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences and School of Biotechnology, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar 751 024, India
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 January 2012; in revised form: 20 February 2012 / Accepted: 28 February 2012 / Published: 2 March 2012
Abstract: Little information is available on relationships between the biophysical environment and antibiotic resistance. This study was conducted to investigate the antibiotic resistance pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from child stool samples, cow-dung and drinking water from the non-coastal (230 households) and coastal (187 households) regions of Odisha, India. Susceptibility testing of E. coli isolates (n = 696) to the following antibiotics: tetracycline, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefixime, cotrimoxazole, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and nalidixic acid was performed by the disk diffusion method. Ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates (n = 83). Resistance to at least one antibiotic was detected in 90% or more of the E. coli isolates. Ciprofloxacin MIC values ranged from 8 to 32 µg/mL. The odds ratio (OR) of resistance in E. coli isolates from children’s stool (OR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.18–8.01), cow-dung (OR = 3.6, 95% CI 1.59–8.03, P = 0.002) and drinking water (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.00–14.44, P = 0.049) were higher in non-coastal compared to coastal region. Similarly, the co-resistance in cow-dung (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.39–4.37, P = 0.002) and drinking water (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.36–7.41, P = 0.008) as well as the multi-resistance in cow-dung (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.12–4.34, P = 0.022) and drinking water (OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.06–7.07, P = 0.036) were also higher in the non-coastal compared to the coastal region.
Keywords: antibiotic resistance; non-coastal; coastal; ciprofloxacin resistance; Odisha; India
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Sahoo, K.C.; Tamhankar, A.J.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P.S.; Klintz, S.R.; Lundborg, C.S. Geographical Variation in Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Stool, Cow-Dung and Drinking Water. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 746-759.
Sahoo KC, Tamhankar AJ, Sahoo S, Sahu PS, Klintz SR, Lundborg CS. Geographical Variation in Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Stool, Cow-Dung and Drinking Water. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(3):746-759.
Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Sahoo, Soumyakanta; Sahu, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan; Klintz, Senia Rosales; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby. 2012. "Geographical Variation in Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Stool, Cow-Dung and Drinking Water." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 3: 746-759.