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Knowledge of Health Effects and Intentions to Quit Among Smokers in India: Findings From the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Pilot Survey
Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L3G1, Canada
Healis Sekhsaria Institute for Public Health, 601/B, Great Eastern Chambers, Plot No. 28, Sector 11, CBD Belapur, 400 614, Navi Mumbai, India
Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, MaRS Centre, South Tower, 101 College Street, Suite 800, Toronto, Ontario M5G 0A3, Canada
Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
School of Preventive Oncology, A/27, Anandpuri, West Boring Canal Road, 800001, Patna, Bihar, India
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 January 2012; in revised form: 3 February 2012 / Accepted: 6 February 2012 / Published: 15 February 2012
Abstract: Awareness of the health risks of smoking is an important factor in predicting smoking-related behaviour; however, little is known about the knowledge of health risks in low-income countries such as India. The present study examined beliefs about the harms of smoking and the impact of health knowledge on intentions to quit among a sample of 249 current smokers in both urban and rural areas in two states (Maharashtra and Bihar) from the 2006 TCP India Pilot Survey, conducted by the ITC Project. The overall awareness among smokers in India of the specific health risks of smoking was very low compared to other ITC countries, and only 10% of respondents reported that they had plans to quit in the next six months. In addition, smokers with higher knowledge were significantly more likely to have plans to quit smoking. For example, 26.2% of respondents who believed that smoking cause CHD and only 5.5% who did not believe that smoking causes CHD had intentions to quit (χ2 = 16.348, p < 0.001). Important differences were also found according to socioeconomic factors and state: higher levels of knowledge were found in Maharashtra than in Bihar, in urban compared to rural areas, among males, and among smokers with higher education. These findings highlight the need to increase awareness about the health risks of smoking in India, particularly in rural areas, where levels of education and health knowledge are lower.
Keywords: health risks; smoking; health knowledge; quit intentions; India
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Sansone, G.C.; Raute, L.J.; Fong, G.T.; Pednekar, M.S.; Quah, A.C.K.; Bansal-Travers, M.; Gupta, P.C.; Sinha, D.N. Knowledge of Health Effects and Intentions to Quit Among Smokers in India: Findings From the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Pilot Survey. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 564-578.
Sansone GC, Raute LJ, Fong GT, Pednekar MS, Quah ACK, Bansal-Travers M, Gupta PC, Sinha DN. Knowledge of Health Effects and Intentions to Quit Among Smokers in India: Findings From the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Pilot Survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(2):564-578.
Sansone, Genevieve C.; Raute, Lalit J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Quah, Anne C. K.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Gupta, Prakash C.; Sinha, Dhirendra N. 2012. "Knowledge of Health Effects and Intentions to Quit Among Smokers in India: Findings From the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Pilot Survey." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 2: 564-578.