Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(10), 3724-3739; doi:10.3390/ijerph9103724
Article

An Integrated Risk Management Model for Source Water Protection Areas

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Received: 31 August 2012; in revised form: 26 September 2012 / Accepted: 27 September 2012 / Published: 17 October 2012
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Watersheds are recognized as the most effective management unit for the protection of water resources. For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans. The aim of this article is to establish a risk assessment model that provides basic information for identifying critical pollutants and areas at high risk for degraded water quality. In this study, a quantitative risk model that uses hazard quotients for each water quality parameter was combined with a qualitative risk model that uses the relative risk level of potential pollution events in order to characterize the current condition and potential risk of watersheds providing drinking water. In a case study of Taipei Source Water Area in northern Taiwan, total coliforms and total phosphorus were the top two pollutants of concern. Intensive tea-growing and recreational activities around the riparian zone may contribute the greatest pollution to the watershed. Our risk assessment tool may be enhanced by developing, recording, and updating information on pollution sources in the water supply watersheds. Moreover, management authorities could use the resultant information to create watershed risk management plans.
Keywords: risk assessment; source water protection area; quantitative risk; qualitative risk; land use
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chiueh, P.-T.; Shang, W.-T.; Lo, S.-L. An Integrated Risk Management Model for Source Water Protection Areas. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 3724-3739.

AMA Style

Chiueh P-T, Shang W-T, Lo S-L. An Integrated Risk Management Model for Source Water Protection Areas. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(10):3724-3739.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chiueh, Pei-Te; Shang, Wei-Ting; Lo, Shang-Lien. 2012. "An Integrated Risk Management Model for Source Water Protection Areas." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 10: 3724-3739.


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