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Extrinsic Tooth Enamel Color Changes and Their Relationship with the Quality of Water Consumed
Department of Community Dentistry, University of Amazonas, Rua Maceió, 618, apto 902, Edifício Saint Remy, Adrianópolis, CEP 69053-730, Manaus/AM, Brazil
Graduate Program in Dentistry, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, P.O. Box 52, CEP 13414-903, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
Department of Community Dentistry, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, P.O. Box 52, CEP 13414-903, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 July 2012; in revised form: 9 August 2012 / Accepted: 14 September 2012 / Published: 5 October 2012
Abstract: The quality of the consumed drinking water may affect oral health. For example, the presence of iron in drinking water can cause aesthetic problems related to changes in dental enamel color. This study assessed the prevalence of extrinsic enamel color changes and their relationship with the quality of the water in the town of Caapiranga/AM-Brazil. Three hundred and forty six residents of the urban area were examined, and they also answered a questionnaire on eating habits and self-perceived oral health. As the initial results indicated an insufficient number of observations for the application of variance analysis (one-way ANOVA), the Student t test was chosen to compare levels of iron content in the water coming from two sources. The change in tooth color had a prevalence of 5.78% (20 people). The majority of the population (n = 261, 75.43%) consumed well water. Those who presented extrinsic stains were uncomfortable with the appearance of their teeth (15.09%). We conclude that while there is excess of iron in the water in this region of Brazil, no association between extrinsic stains on the enamel and the level of iron in the water was found. There was a low prevalence of extrinsic stains in Caaparinga, being found only in children and adolescents. In the present study, an association between the presence of stains and the consumption of açai was determined, and those who presented them felt uncomfortable about their aesthetics.
Keywords: dental enamel; oral health; water supply
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MDPI and ACS Style
Rebelo de Sousa, K.; Batista, M.J.; Rocha Gonçalves, J.; da Luz Rosário de Sousa, M. Extrinsic Tooth Enamel Color Changes and Their Relationship with the Quality of Water Consumed. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 3530-3539.
Rebelo de Sousa K, Batista MJ, Rocha Gonçalves J, da Luz Rosário de Sousa M. Extrinsic Tooth Enamel Color Changes and Their Relationship with the Quality of Water Consumed. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(10):3530-3539.
Rebelo de Sousa, Kathleen; Batista, Marília J.; Rocha Gonçalves, Juliana; da Luz Rosário de Sousa, Maria. 2012. "Extrinsic Tooth Enamel Color Changes and Their Relationship with the Quality of Water Consumed." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 10: 3530-3539.