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Study on the Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Cardiovascular and Respiratory Mortality in an Urban District of Beijing
Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101, China
Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Injury Prevention Research Center, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong Province, China
Department of International Health, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 April 2011; Accepted: 20 May 2011 / Published: 9 June 2011
Abstract: The association between daily cardiovascular/respiratory mortality and air pollution in an urban district of Beijing was investigated over a 6-year period (January 2003 to December 2008). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of the major air pollutants [particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2] as predictors of daily cardiovascular/respiratory mortality. The time-series studied comprises years with lower level interventions to control air pollution (2003–2006) and years with high level interventions in preparation for and during the Olympics/Paralympics (2007–2008). Concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2, were measured daily during the study period. A generalized additive model was used to evaluate daily numbers of cardiovascular/ respiratory deaths in relation to each air pollutant, controlling for time trends and meteorological influences such as temperature and relative humidity. The results show that the daily cardiovascular/respiratory death rates were significantly associated with the concentration air pollutants, especially deaths related to cardiovascular disease. The current day effects of PM10 and NO2 were higher than that of single lags (distributed lags) and moving average lags for respiratory disease mortality. The largest RR of SO2 for respiratory disease mortality was in Lag02. For cardiovascular disease mortality, the largest RR was in Lag01 for PM10, and in current day (Lag0) for SO2 and NO2. NO2 was associated with the largest RRs for deaths from both cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease.
Keywords: air pollutants; respiratory disease; cardiovascular disease; mortality; environmental exposure
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MDPI and ACS Style
Zhang, F.; Li, L.; Krafft, T.; Lv, J.; Wang, W.; Pei, D. Study on the Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Cardiovascular and Respiratory Mortality in an Urban District of Beijing. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 2109-2123.
Zhang F, Li L, Krafft T, Lv J, Wang W, Pei D. Study on the Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Cardiovascular and Respiratory Mortality in an Urban District of Beijing. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(6):2109-2123.
Zhang, Fengying; Li, Liping; Krafft, Thomas; Lv, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Pei, Desheng. 2011. "Study on the Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Cardiovascular and Respiratory Mortality in an Urban District of Beijing." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 6: 2109-2123.