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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(6), 1957-1976; doi:10.3390/ijerph8061957
Review

Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

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Received: 17 March 2011; in revised form: 25 May 2011 / Accepted: 27 May 2011 / Published: 3 June 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological and Agricultural Engineering)
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Abstract: Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR), germinated brown rice (GBR) and partially-milled rice (PMR) contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR). Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR) seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled), and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environmental loads. A switch in production and consumption patterns would improve food security where food grains are scarce, and provide more health beneficial food components, may prevent some diseases and ease the burden on the Earth. However, motivation and awareness of the environment and health, and even a nominal incentive may require for a method switching which may help in building a sustainable society.
Keywords: rice processing; rice properties; CO2 emission; health; environment rice processing; rice properties; CO2 emission; health; environment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Roy, P.; Orikasa, T.; Okadome, H.; Nakamura, N.; Shiina, T. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 1957-1976.

AMA Style

Roy P, Orikasa T, Okadome H, Nakamura N, Shiina T. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(6):1957-1976.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Roy, Poritosh; Orikasa, Takahiro; Okadome, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Shiina, Takeo. 2011. "Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 6: 1957-1976.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert