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Evaluation of Changes in Individual Community-Related Empowerment in Community Health Promotion Interventions in Estonia
Institute of Political Science and Governance, University of Tallinn, Narva mnt. 10-120, Tallinn, Estonia
Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Niels Bohrs Vej 9-10, 6700 Esbjerg, Denmark
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 April 2011; Accepted: 10 May 2011 / Published: 25 May 2011
Abstract: This study assessed changes in community members’ ratings of the dimensions of individual community related empowerment (ICRE) before and two years after the implementation of an empowerment expansion framework in three community health promotion initiatives within the Estonian context. We employed a self-administered questionnaire, the adapted mobilisation scale–individual. As the first step, we investigated the multidimensional nature of the ICRE construct and explored the validity and reliability (internal consistency) of the ICRE scale. Two datasets were used. The first dataset comprised a cross-sectional random sample of 1,000 inhabitants of Rapla County selected in 2003 from the National Population Register, which was used to confirm the composition of the dimensions of the scale and to examine the reliability of the dimensions. The second dataset comprised two waves of data: 120 participants from three health promotion programs in 2003 (pre-test) and 115 participants in 2005 (post-test), and the dataset was used to compare participants’ pre-test and post-test ratings of their levels of empowerment. The content validity ratio, determined using Lawshe’s formula, was high (0.98). Five dimensions of ICRE, self-efficacy, intention, participation, motivation and critical awareness, emerged from the factor analysis. The internal consistency (α) of the total empowerment scale was 0.86 (subscales self-efficacy α = 0.88, intention α = 0.83, participation α = 0.81 and motivation α = 0.69; critical awareness comprised only one item). The levels of ICRE dimensions measured after the application of the empowerment expansion framework were significantly more favourable for the dimensions self-efficacy, participation, intention and motivation to participate. We conclude that for Rapla community workgroups and networks, their ICRE was rendered more favourable after the implementation of the empowerment expansion framework.
Keywords: individual community related empowerment; social change; health promotion; empowerment evaluation; Estonia; Eastern Europe
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Kasmel, A.; Tanggaard, P. Evaluation of Changes in Individual Community-Related Empowerment in Community Health Promotion Interventions in Estonia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 1772-1791.
Kasmel A, Tanggaard P. Evaluation of Changes in Individual Community-Related Empowerment in Community Health Promotion Interventions in Estonia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(6):1772-1791.
Kasmel, Anu; Tanggaard, Pernille. 2011. "Evaluation of Changes in Individual Community-Related Empowerment in Community Health Promotion Interventions in Estonia." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 6: 1772-1791.