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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(11), 4284-4299; doi:10.3390/ijerph8114284
Article

Association Between Socioeconomic Factors and the Choice of Dentifrice and Fluoride Intake by Children

1
,
2
,
1
,
3
 and
1,*
1 Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Av. Antônio Carlos, Minas Gerais 6627, Brazil 2 Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauricéia, Montes Claros, Brazil 3 Department of Biochemistry, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av. Limeira 901, Piracicaba, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 October 2011 / Revised: 7 November 2011 / Accepted: 8 November 2011 / Published: 10 November 2011
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Abstract

It is questionable whether socioeconomic factors influence the choice of marketed children’s dentifrices and whether these products are associated with greater fluoride (F) intake in children. The present cross-sectional study involving 197 children (mean age: 40.98 ± 6.62 months) was carried out in Montes Claros, Brazil. Parents completed a questionnaire on socioeconomic status and the tooth brushing habits of their children. The children brushed their teeth and saliva residues were collected for F analysis. F intake from dentifrice was determined with an ion-specific electrode. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to test whether the type of dentifrice (children’s or family) and F dose (< 0.05 and ≥0.05 mg F/Kg of body weight/day) were associated with the independent variables (p < 0.05). No differences were found between children’s and family dentifrices regarding daily F intake (0.046 and 0.040 mg F/Kg/day, respectively; p = 0.513). The following were strong predictors for the use of a children’s dentifrice: studying at a private kindergarten (OR: 6.89; p < 0.001); age that the child begun to tooth brush < 2 years (OR: 2.93; p = 0.041), and the interaction between the variables “use of the same dentifrice as parents” and “type of tooth brush used” (OR: 27.20; p < 0.001). “The amount of dentifrice used” and “frequency of tooth brushing” (p ≤ 0.004) had a statistically and synergistic effect over the daily F dose. The present study found a social influence over the choice of dentifrice: children with a high socioeconomic status tend to use a children’s dentifrice. The amount of dentifrice used can strongly increase the risk of exposure to higher doses of F, regardless of the type of dentifrice.
Keywords: children; dentifrice; fluoride; dental fluorosis; socioeconomic factors children; dentifrice; fluoride; dental fluorosis; socioeconomic factors
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Martins, C.C.; Oliveira, M.J.; Pordeus, I.A.; Cury, J.A.; Paiva, S.M. Association Between Socioeconomic Factors and the Choice of Dentifrice and Fluoride Intake by Children. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 4284-4299.

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