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A Multilevel Analysis of Neighbourhood Built and Social Environments and Adult Self-Reported Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Ottawa, Canada
Population Health Program, Faculty of Graduate Studies, University of Ottawa, 1 Stewart Street, Ottawa, Ontario KIN 6N5, Canada
Healthy Active Living and Obesity Research Group, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, 401 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8L1, Canada
School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, 136 Jean Jacques Lussier, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada
Ottawa Public Health, City of Ottawa, 100 Constellation Crescent, Ottawa, Ontario K2G 6C8, Canada
Microdata Access Division, Statistics Canada, 65 University Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada
Laboratory for Applied Geomatics and GIS Science (LAGGISS), Department of Geography, University of Ottawa, 60 University Private, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8M5, Canada
Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8M5, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 July 2011; in revised form: 27 September 2011 / Accepted: 4 October 2011 / Published: 14 October 2011
Abstract: Canadian research examining the combined effects of social and built environments on physical activity (PA) and obesity is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among built and social environments and PA and overweight/obesity in 85 Ottawa neighbourhoods. Self-reported PA, height and weight were collected from 3,883 adults using the International PA Questionnaire from the 2003-2007 samples of the Rapid Risk Factor Surveillance System. Data on neighbourhood characteristics were obtained from the Ottawa Neighbourhood Study; a large study of neighbourhoods and health in Ottawa. Two-level binomial logistic regression models stratified by sex were used to examine the relationships of environmental and individual variables with PA and overweight/obesity while using survey weights. Results identified that approximately half of the adults were insufficiently active or overweight/obese. Multilevel models identified that for every additional convenience store, men were two times more likely to be physically active (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.72, 2.43) and with every additional specialty food store women were almost two times more likely to be overweight or obese (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.33, 2.20). Higher green space was associated with a reduced likelihood of PA (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.99) and increased odds of overweight and obesity in men (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.19), and decreased odds of overweight/obesity in women (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.89). In men, neighbourhood socioeconomic scores, voting rates and sense of community belonging were all significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Intraclass coefficients were low, but identified that the majority of neighbourhood variation in outcomes was explained by the models. Findings identified that green space, food landscapes and social cohesiveness may play different roles on PA and overweight/obesity in men and women and future prospective studies are needed.
Keywords: physical activity; obesity; neighbourhood; environment; population health
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Prince, S.A.; Kristjansson, E.A.; Russell, K.; Billette, J.-M.; Sawada, M.; Ali, A.; Tremblay, M.S.; Prud’homme, D. A Multilevel Analysis of Neighbourhood Built and Social Environments and Adult Self-Reported Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Ottawa, Canada. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 3953-3978.
Prince SA, Kristjansson EA, Russell K, Billette J-M, Sawada M, Ali A, Tremblay MS, Prud’homme D. A Multilevel Analysis of Neighbourhood Built and Social Environments and Adult Self-Reported Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Ottawa, Canada. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(10):3953-3978.
Prince, Stephanie A.; Kristjansson, Elizabeth A.; Russell, Katherine; Billette, Jean-Michel; Sawada, Michael; Ali, Amira; Tremblay, Mark S.; Prud’homme, Denis. 2011. "A Multilevel Analysis of Neighbourhood Built and Social Environments and Adult Self-Reported Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Ottawa, Canada." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 10: 3953-3978.