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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(10), 3953-3978; doi:10.3390/ijerph8103953
Article

A Multilevel Analysis of Neighbourhood Built and Social Environments and Adult Self-Reported Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Ottawa, Canada

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Received: 6 July 2011; in revised form: 27 September 2011 / Accepted: 4 October 2011 / Published: 14 October 2011
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Abstract: Canadian research examining the combined effects of social and built environments on physical activity (PA) and obesity is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among built and social environments and PA and overweight/obesity in 85 Ottawa neighbourhoods. Self-reported PA, height and weight were collected from 3,883 adults using the International PA Questionnaire from the 2003-2007 samples of the Rapid Risk Factor Surveillance System. Data on neighbourhood characteristics were obtained from the Ottawa Neighbourhood Study; a large study of neighbourhoods and health in Ottawa. Two-level binomial logistic regression models stratified by sex were used to examine the relationships of environmental and individual variables with PA and overweight/obesity while using survey weights. Results identified that approximately half of the adults were insufficiently active or overweight/obese. Multilevel models identified that for every additional convenience store, men were two times more likely to be physically active (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.72, 2.43) and with every additional specialty food store women were almost two times more likely to be overweight or obese (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.33, 2.20). Higher green space was associated with a reduced likelihood of PA (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.99) and increased odds of overweight and obesity in men (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.19), and decreased odds of overweight/obesity in women (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.89). In men, neighbourhood socioeconomic scores, voting rates and sense of community belonging were all significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Intraclass coefficients were low, but identified that the majority of neighbourhood variation in outcomes was explained by the models. Findings identified that green space, food landscapes and social cohesiveness may play different roles on PA and overweight/obesity in men and women and future prospective studies are needed.
Keywords: physical activity; obesity; neighbourhood; environment; population health physical activity; obesity; neighbourhood; environment; population health
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Prince, S.A.; Kristjansson, E.A.; Russell, K.; Billette, J.-M.; Sawada, M.; Ali, A.; Tremblay, M.S.; Prud’homme, D. A Multilevel Analysis of Neighbourhood Built and Social Environments and Adult Self-Reported Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Ottawa, Canada. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 3953-3978.

AMA Style

Prince SA, Kristjansson EA, Russell K, Billette J-M, Sawada M, Ali A, Tremblay MS, Prud’homme D. A Multilevel Analysis of Neighbourhood Built and Social Environments and Adult Self-Reported Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Ottawa, Canada. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(10):3953-3978.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Prince, Stephanie A.; Kristjansson, Elizabeth A.; Russell, Katherine; Billette, Jean-Michel; Sawada, Michael; Ali, Amira; Tremblay, Mark S.; Prud’homme, Denis. 2011. "A Multilevel Analysis of Neighbourhood Built and Social Environments and Adult Self-Reported Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Ottawa, Canada." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 10: 3953-3978.


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