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Toxicity of Neurons Treated with Herbicides and Neuroprotection by Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant SS31
Neurogenetics Laboratory, Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, 505 NW 185th Avenue, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA
Division of Biostatistics, Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, USA
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 December 2010; in revised form: 13 January 2011 / Accepted: 17 January 2011 / Published: 19 January 2011
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the neurotoxicity of two commonly used herbicides: picloram and triclopyr and the neuroprotective effects of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, SS31. Using mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells and primary neurons from C57BL/6 mice, we investigated the toxicity of these herbicides, and protective effects of SS1 peptide against picloram and triclopyr toxicity. We measured total RNA content, cell viability and mRNA expression of peroxiredoxins, neuroprotective genes, mitochondrial- encoded electron transport chain (ETC) genes in N2a cells treated with herbicides and SS31. Using primary neurons from C57BL/6 mice, neuronal survival was studied in neurons treated with herbicides, in neurons pretreated with SS31 plus treated with herbicides, neurons treated with SS31 alone, and untreated neurons. Significantly decreased total RNA content, and cell viability in N2a cells treated with picloram and triclopyr were found compared to untreated N2a cells. Decreased mRNA expression of neuroprotective genes, and ETC genes in cells treated with herbicides was found compared to untreated cells. Decreased mRNA expression of peroxiredoxins 1–6 in N2a cells treated with picloram was found, suggesting that picloram affects the antioxidant enzymes in N2a cells. Immunofluorescence analysis of primary neurons revealed that decreased neuronal branching and degenerating neurons in neurons treated with picloram and triclopyr. However, neurons pretreated with SS31 prevented degenerative process caused by herbicides. Based on these results, we propose that herbicides—picloram and triclopyr appear to damage neurons, and the SS31 peptide appears to protect neurons from herbicide toxicity.
Keywords: Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant; herbicides; Picloram; Triclopyr; Szeto-Schiller peptide 31; mouse neuroblastoma cells; mouse primary hippocampal neurons; electron transport chain; oxidative stress
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Reddy, T.P.; Manczak, M.; Calkins, M.J.; Mao, P.; Reddy, A.P.; Shirendeb, U.; Park, B.; Reddy, P.H. Toxicity of Neurons Treated with Herbicides and Neuroprotection by Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant SS31. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 203-221.
Reddy TP, Manczak M, Calkins MJ, Mao P, Reddy AP, Shirendeb U, Park B, Reddy PH. Toxicity of Neurons Treated with Herbicides and Neuroprotection by Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant SS31. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(1):203-221.
Reddy, Tejaswini P.; Manczak, Maria; Calkins, Marcus J.; Mao, Peizhong; Reddy, Arubala P.; Shirendeb, Ulziibat; Park, Byung; Reddy, P. Hemachandra. 2011. "Toxicity of Neurons Treated with Herbicides and Neuroprotection by Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant SS31." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 1: 203-221.