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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 7, Issue 1 (January 2010), Pages 1-332

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Quality Health Care in the European Union Thanks to Competition Law
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(1), 1-8; doi:10.3390/ijerph7010001
Received: 26 November 2009 / Accepted: 18 December 2009 / Published: 24 December 2009
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (198 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There are many biases concerning the application of competition law in health care. Quality concerns can however be integrated into competition law analysis. The aim of this paper is to identify the links between the application of competition law in the European Union
[...] Read more.
There are many biases concerning the application of competition law in health care. Quality concerns can however be integrated into competition law analysis. The aim of this paper is to identify the links between the application of competition law in the European Union and the right to quality health care and to point out the problems that arise when integrating quality concerns in competition law analysis. Guidelines must be issued and competition authorities must work together with institutions that have expertise in the field of health care quality measurement in order to integrate these dimensions in competition practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behavior and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle The Selection of an Appropriate Count Data Model for Modelling Health Insurance and Health Care Demand: Case of Indonesia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(1), 9-27; doi:10.3390/ijerph7010009
Received: 30 November 2009 / Accepted: 20 December 2009 / Published: 29 December 2009
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (458 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We apply several estimators to Indonesian household data to estimate the relationship between health insurance and the number of outpatient visits to public and private providers. Once endogeneity of insurance is taken into account, there is a 63 percent increase in the average
[...] Read more.
We apply several estimators to Indonesian household data to estimate the relationship between health insurance and the number of outpatient visits to public and private providers. Once endogeneity of insurance is taken into account, there is a 63 percent increase in the average number of public visits by the beneficiaries of mandatory insurance for civil servants. Individuals' decisions to make first contact with private providers is affected by private insurance membership. However, insurance status does not make any difference for the number of future outpatient visits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Economics)
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Open AccessArticle Epidemiological Methods: About Time
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(1), 29-45; doi:10.3390/ijerph7010029
Received: 29 October 2009 / Accepted: 24 December 2009 / Published: 31 December 2009
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (363 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epidemiological studies often produce false positive results due to use of statistical approaches that either ignore or distort time. The three time-related issues of focus in this discussion are: (1) cross-sectional vs. cohort studies, (2) statistical significance vs. public health significance, and (3),
[...] Read more.
Epidemiological studies often produce false positive results due to use of statistical approaches that either ignore or distort time. The three time-related issues of focus in this discussion are: (1) cross-sectional vs. cohort studies, (2) statistical significance vs. public health significance, and (3), how risk factors "work together" to impact public health significance. The issue of time should be central to all thinking in epidemiology research, affecting sampling, measurement, design, analysis and, perhaps most important, the interpretation of results that might influence clinical and public-health decision-making and subsequent clinical research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Epidemiology)
Open AccessArticle Challenging the “Inoffensiveness” of Regular Cannabis Use by Its Associations with Other Current Risky Substance Use—A Census of 20-Year-Old Swiss Men
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(1), 46-59; doi:10.3390/ijerph7010046
Received: 16 November 2009 / Accepted: 29 December 2009 / Published: 4 January 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (186 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
3,537 men enrolling in 2007 for mandatory army recruitment procedures were assessed for the co-occurrence of risky licit substance use among risky cannabis users. Risky cannabis use was defined as at least twice weekly; risky alcohol use as 6+ drinks more than once/monthly,
[...] Read more.
3,537 men enrolling in 2007 for mandatory army recruitment procedures were assessed for the co-occurrence of risky licit substance use among risky cannabis users. Risky cannabis use was defined as at least twice weekly; risky alcohol use as 6+ drinks more than once/monthly, or more than 20 drinks per week; and risky tobacco use as daily smoking. Ninety-five percent of all risky cannabis users reported other risky use. They began using cannabis earlier than did non-risky users, but age of onset was unrelated to other risky substance use. A pressing public health issue among cannabis users stems from risky licit substance use warranting preventive efforts within this age group. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Influence of Individual, Social and Physical Environment Factors on Physical Activity in the Adult Population in Andalusia, Spain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(1), 60-77; doi:10.3390/ijerph7010060
Received: 24 October 2009 / Accepted: 16 December 2009 / Published: 5 January 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (776 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A person’s physical and social environment is considered as an influencing factor in terms of rates of engagement in physical activity. This study analyses the influence of socio-demographic, physical and social environmental factors on physical activity reported in the adult population in Andalusia.
[...] Read more.
A person’s physical and social environment is considered as an influencing factor in terms of rates of engagement in physical activity. This study analyses the influence of socio-demographic, physical and social environmental factors on physical activity reported in the adult population in Andalusia. This is a cross-sectional study using data collected in the Andalusia Health Survey in 1999 and 2003. In addition to the influence of the individual’s characteristics, if there are no green spaces in the neighbourhood it is less likely that men and women will take exercise (OR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.13, 1.41). Likewise, a higher local illiteracy rate also has a negative influence on exercise habits in men (OR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.21, 1.59) and in women (OR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.40). Physical activity is influenced by individuals’ characteristics as well as by their social and physical environment, the most disadvantaged groups are less likely to engage in physical activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle What Defines an Effective Anti-Tobacco TV Advertisement? A Pilot Study among Greek Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(1), 78-88; doi:10.3390/ijerph7010078
Received: 16 November 2009 / Accepted: 24 December 2009 / Published: 8 January 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (213 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) calls for public health awareness on tobacco use, mass media campaigns should be appropriately designed so as to maximize their effectiveness. In this methodological pilot study, 95 Greek adolescents (mean age 15 ± 1.8 years),
[...] Read more.
As the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) calls for public health awareness on tobacco use, mass media campaigns should be appropriately designed so as to maximize their effectiveness. In this methodological pilot study, 95 Greek adolescents (mean age 15 ± 1.8 years), were shown seven different anti tobacco ads, and asked to rate the ad theme, message and emotional context on a 1−7 Likert scale. Health related ads were rated the highest, and as identified through the logistic regression analysis, adolescents who perceived an ad to be emotional or to have a clear message that was relevant to them, were more likely to rate the ad as more effective. The strong agreement between the above findings and the existing literature indicates the applicability of this pilot study’s methodological approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behavior and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Assessing the Relationship between Socioeconomic Conditions and Urban Environmental Quality in Accra, Ghana
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(1), 125-145; doi:10.3390/ijerph7010125
Received: 10 October 2009 / Accepted: 7 January 2010 / Published: 13 January 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on health inequalities is widely known, but there is still poor understanding of the precise relationship between area-based socioeconomic conditions and neighborhood environmental quality. This study aimed to investigate the socioeconomic conditions which predict urban neighbourhood environmental
[...] Read more.
The influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on health inequalities is widely known, but there is still poor understanding of the precise relationship between area-based socioeconomic conditions and neighborhood environmental quality. This study aimed to investigate the socioeconomic conditions which predict urban neighbourhood environmental quality. The results showed wide variation in levels of association between the socioeconomic variables and environmental conditions, with strong evidence of a real difference in environmental quality across the five socioeconomic classes with respect to total waste generation (p < 0.001), waste collection rate (p < 0.001), sewer disposal rate (p < 0.001), non-sewer disposal (p < 0.003), the proportion of households using public toilets (p = 0.005). Socioeconomic conditions are therefore important drivers of change in environmental quality and urban environmental interventions aimed at infectious disease prevention and control if they should be effective could benefit from simultaneous implementation with other social interventions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Maternal Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy and Offspring Externalizing Behavioral Problems: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(1), 146-163; doi:10.3390/ijerph7010146
Received: 30 December 2009 / Accepted: 12 January 2010 / Published: 14 January 2010
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (250 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A body of empirical research has revealed that prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke is related to a host of negative outcomes, including reduced cognitive abilities, later-life health problems, and childhood behavioral problems. While these findings are often interpreted as evidence of the causal
[...] Read more.
A body of empirical research has revealed that prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke is related to a host of negative outcomes, including reduced cognitive abilities, later-life health problems, and childhood behavioral problems. While these findings are often interpreted as evidence of the causal role that prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke has on human phenotypes, emerging evidence has suggested that the association between prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke and behavioral phenotypes may be spurious. The current analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) revealed that the association between prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke and externalizing behavioral problems was fully accounted for by confounding factors. The implications that these findings have for policy and research are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Environmental Research)
Open AccessArticle Estimating Prevalence of Coronary Heart Disease for Small Areas Using Collateral Indicators of Morbidity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(1), 164-177; doi:10.3390/ijerph7010164
Received: 20 November 2009 / Accepted: 14 January 2010 / Published: 18 January 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Different indicators of morbidity for chronic disease may not necessarily be available at a disaggregated spatial scale (e.g., for small areas with populations under 10 thousand). Instead certain indicators may only be available at a more highly aggregated spatial scale; for example, deaths
[...] Read more.
Different indicators of morbidity for chronic disease may not necessarily be available at a disaggregated spatial scale (e.g., for small areas with populations under 10 thousand). Instead certain indicators may only be available at a more highly aggregated spatial scale; for example, deaths may be recorded for small areas, but disease prevalence only at a considerably higher spatial scale. Nevertheless prevalence estimates at small area level are important for assessing health need. An instance is provided by England where deaths and hospital admissions for coronary heart disease are available for small areas known as wards, but prevalence is only available for relatively large health authority areas. To estimate CHD prevalence at small area level in such a situation, a shared random effect method is proposed that pools information regarding spatial morbidity contrasts over different indicators (deaths, hospitalizations, prevalence). The shared random effect approach also incorporates differences between small areas in known risk factors (e.g., income, ethnic structure). A Poisson-multinomial equivalence may be used to ensure small area prevalence estimates sum to the known higher area total. An illustration is provided by data for London using hospital admissions and CHD deaths at ward level, together with CHD prevalence totals for considerably larger local health authority areas. The shared random effect involved a spatially correlated common factor, that accounts for clustering in latent risk factors, and also provides a summary measure of small area CHD morbidity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Diseases and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Aflatoxin Contamination in Food and Body Fluids in Relation to Malnutrition and Cancer Status in Cameroon
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(1), 178-188; doi:10.3390/ijerph7010178
Received: 16 November 2009 / Accepted: 18 December 2009 / Published: 18 January 2010
Cited by 43 | PDF Full-text (264 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aflatoxins are food contaminants usually associated with hepatitis, immunodepression, impairment of fertility and cancer. The present work was to determine the presence of aflatoxins in eggs, milk, urine, and blood samples that were collected from various sources and periods; and hepatitis B virus
[...] Read more.
Aflatoxins are food contaminants usually associated with hepatitis, immunodepression, impairment of fertility and cancer. The present work was to determine the presence of aflatoxins in eggs, milk, urine, and blood samples that were collected from various sources and periods; and hepatitis B virus antigen in blood samples. Aflatoxin was found in eggs (45.2%), cow raw milk (15.9%), breast milk (4.8%), urine from kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor children (45.5%), and sera from primary liver cancer patients (63.9%); HbsAg was also detected in 69.4% of the serum samples, but there was no association between both factors. Both AF and hepatitis B virus seem to be risk factors that could increase the incidence and prevalence rates of malnutrition and cancer in Cameroon. Full article
Open AccessArticle Advancing the Selection of Neurodevelopmental Measures in Epidemiological Studies of Environmental Chemical Exposure and Health Effects
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(1), 229-268; doi:10.3390/ijerph7010229
Received: 27 November 2009 / Accepted: 11 January 2010 / Published: 19 January 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (461 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With research suggesting increasing incidence of pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders, questions regarding etiology continue to be raised. Neurodevelopmental function tests have been used in epidemiology studies to evaluate relationships between environmental chemical exposures and neurodevelopmental deficits. Limitations of currently used tests and difficulties with
[...] Read more.
With research suggesting increasing incidence of pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders, questions regarding etiology continue to be raised. Neurodevelopmental function tests have been used in epidemiology studies to evaluate relationships between environmental chemical exposures and neurodevelopmental deficits. Limitations of currently used tests and difficulties with their interpretation have been described, but a comprehensive critical examination of tests commonly used in studies of environmental chemicals and pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders has not been conducted. We provide here a listing and critical evaluation of commonly used neurodevelopmental tests in studies exploring effects from chemical exposures and recommend measures that are not often used, but should be considered. We also discuss important considerations in selecting appropriate tests and provide a case study by reviewing the literature on polychlorinated biphenyls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Epidemiology)
Open AccessArticle Categorizing US State Drinking Practices and Consumption Trends
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(1), 269-283; doi:10.3390/ijerph7010269
Received: 9 December 2009 / Accepted: 16 January 2010 / Published: 20 January 2010
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (172 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
US state alcohol consumption patterns and trends are examined in order to identify groups of states with similar drinking habits or cultures. Rates of heavy drinking and current abstention and per capita apparent consumption levels are used to categorize states. Six state groupings
[...] Read more.
US state alcohol consumption patterns and trends are examined in order to identify groups of states with similar drinking habits or cultures. Rates of heavy drinking and current abstention and per capita apparent consumption levels are used to categorize states. Six state groupings were identified: North Central and New England with the highest consumption and heavy drinking levels; Middle Atlantic, Pacific and South Coast with moderate drinking levels; and Dry South with the lowest drinking levels. Analyses of relationships between beer and spirits series for states within groups as compared to those in different groups failed to clearly indicate group cohesiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Research on Alcohol: Public Health Perspectives)
Open AccessArticle Determinants of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) among Non Smoking Adolescents (Aged 11-17 Years Old) in Greece: Results from the 2004-2005 GYTS Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(1), 284-290; doi:10.3390/ijerph7010284
Received: 13 November 2009 / Accepted: 15 January 2010 / Published: 21 January 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (123 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the study is to investigate the determinants of exposure to ETS among Greek adolescents aged 11-17 years old. The GYTS questionnaire was completed by 5,179 adolescents. About 3 in 4 responders (76.8%) were exposed to ETS at home, and 38.5%
[...] Read more.
The aim of the study is to investigate the determinants of exposure to ETS among Greek adolescents aged 11-17 years old. The GYTS questionnaire was completed by 5,179 adolescents. About 3 in 4 responders (76.8%) were exposed to ETS at home, and 38.5% were exposed to ETS outside of the home. Gender, age group, parental and close friends smoking status were significant determinants of adolescent’s exposure to ETS. The results of the study could be valuable for the implementation of public health initiatives in Greece aiming to reduce the burden of adolescent’s exposure to passive smoking. Full article
Open AccessArticle Correcting the Actual Reproduction Number: A Simple Method to Estimate R0 from Early Epidemic Growth Data
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(1), 291-302; doi:10.3390/ijerph7010291
Received: 24 December 2009 / Accepted: 18 January 2010 / Published: 21 January 2010
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (212 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The basic reproduction number, R0, a summary measure of the transmission potential of an infectious disease, is estimated from early epidemic growth rate, but a likelihood-based method for the estimation has yet to be developed. The present study corrects the concept
[...] Read more.
The basic reproduction number, R0, a summary measure of the transmission potential of an infectious disease, is estimated from early epidemic growth rate, but a likelihood-based method for the estimation has yet to be developed. The present study corrects the concept of the actual reproduction number, offering a simple framework for estimating R0 without assuming exponential growth of cases. The proposed method is applied to the HIV epidemic in European countries, yielding R0 values ranging from 3.60 to 3.74, consistent with those based on the Euler-Lotka equation. The method also permits calculating the expected value of R0 using a spreadsheet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Epidemiology)
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Open AccessArticle Indoor Air in Beauty Salons and Occupational Health Exposure of Cosmetologists to Chemical Substances
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(1), 314-324; doi:10.3390/ijerph7010314
Received: 1 December 2009 / Accepted: 22 January 2010 / Published: 26 January 2010
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (182 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The indoor environment in four beauty salons located in Athens (Greece) was examined in order to investigate the occupational health exposure of cosmetologists to various chemical products typically used in their work. Chemical substances chosen for investigation were volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde,
[...] Read more.
The indoor environment in four beauty salons located in Athens (Greece) was examined in order to investigate the occupational health exposure of cosmetologists to various chemical products typically used in their work. Chemical substances chosen for investigation were volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde, ozone and carbon dioxide. Total VOCs levels measured showed significant variation (100–1,450 μg m-3) depending on the products used and the number of treatments carried out, as well as ventilation. The main VOCs found in the salons were aromatics (toluene, xylene), esters and ketones (ethyl acetate, acetone, etc.) which are used as solvents in various beauty products; terpenes (pinene, limonene, camphor, menthenol) which have a particular odor and others like camphor which have specific properties. Ozone concentrations measured in all salons were quite low (0.1 and 13.3 μg m-3) and formaldehyde concentrations detected were lower than the detection limit of the method in all salons (<0.05 ppm). Carbon dioxide levels ranged between 402 and 1,268 ppm, depending on the number of people present in the salons during measurements and ventilation. Cosmetologists may be exposed to high concentrations of a mixture of volatile organic compounds although these levels could be decreased significantly by following certain practices such as good ventilation of the areas, closing the packages of the beauty products when not in use and finally selecting safer beauty products without strong odor. Full article
Open AccessArticle To Match or Not to Match in Epidemiological Studies—Same Outcome but Less Power
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(1), 325-332; doi:10.3390/ijerph7010325
Received: 8 December 2009 / Accepted: 22 January 2010 / Published: 26 January 2010
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (164 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aimed to analyze the possible resemblance or difference in outcome in a case-control study of quality of life for IBS patients compared to controls free from the disease, when a matching procedure for age and sex was applied for the control
[...] Read more.
This study aimed to analyze the possible resemblance or difference in outcome in a case-control study of quality of life for IBS patients compared to controls free from the disease, when a matching procedure for age and sex was applied for the control group compared to when all participating subjects were included in the control group. The main result was that almost the same and identical results were found irrespective of whether matching or not matching was applied in this epidemiological case-control study. The matching procedure however, slightly diminished the statistical power of the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Epidemiology)

Review

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Open AccessReview Avian Colibacillosis and Salmonellosis: A Closer Look at Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Control and Public Health Concerns
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(1), 89-114; doi:10.3390/ijerph7010089
Received: 26 November 2009 / Accepted: 11 January 2010 / Published: 12 January 2010
Cited by 71 | PDF Full-text (283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis are considered to be the major bacterial diseases in the poultry industry world-wide. Colibacillosis and salmonellosis are the most common avian diseases that are communicable to humans. This article provides the vital information on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, control
[...] Read more.
Avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis are considered to be the major bacterial diseases in the poultry industry world-wide. Colibacillosis and salmonellosis are the most common avian diseases that are communicable to humans. This article provides the vital information on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, control and public health concerns of avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis. A better understanding of the information addressed in this review article will assist the poultry researchers and the poultry industry in continuing to make progress in reducing and eliminating avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis from the poultry flocks, thereby reducing potential hazards to the public health posed by these bacterial diseases. Full article
Open AccessReview Advances in Identifying Beryllium Sensitization and Disease
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(1), 115-124; doi:10.3390/ijerph7010115
Received: 1 December 2009 / Accepted: 11 January 2010 / Published: 13 January 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Beryllium is a lightweight metal with unique qualities related to stiffness, corrosion resistance, and conductivity. While there are many useful applications, researchers in the 1930s and l940s linked beryllium exposure to a progressive occupational lung disease. Acute beryllium disease is a pulmonary irritant
[...] Read more.
Beryllium is a lightweight metal with unique qualities related to stiffness, corrosion resistance, and conductivity. While there are many useful applications, researchers in the 1930s and l940s linked beryllium exposure to a progressive occupational lung disease. Acute beryllium disease is a pulmonary irritant response to high exposure levels, whereas chronic beryllium disease (CBD) typically results from a hypersensitivity response to lower exposure levels. A blood test, the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT), was an important advance in identifying individuals who are sensitized to beryllium (BeS) and thus at risk for developing CBD. While there is no true "gold standard" for BeS, basic epidemiologic concepts have been used to advance our understanding of the different screening algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Epidemiology)
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Open AccessReview Theoretical Models and Operational Frameworks in Public Health Ethics
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(1), 189-202; doi:10.3390/ijerph7010189
Received: 24 December 2009 / Accepted: 13 January 2010 / Published: 18 January 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (183 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The article is divided into three sections: (i) an overview of the main ethical models in public health (theoretical foundations); (ii) a summary of several published frameworks for public health ethics (practical frameworks); and (iii) a few general remarks. Rather than maintaining the
[...] Read more.
The article is divided into three sections: (i) an overview of the main ethical models in public health (theoretical foundations); (ii) a summary of several published frameworks for public health ethics (practical frameworks); and (iii) a few general remarks. Rather than maintaining the superiority of one position over the others, the main aim of the article is to summarize the basic approaches proposed thus far concerning the development of public health ethics by describing and comparing the various ideas in the literature. With this in mind, an extensive list of references is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Public Health)
Open AccessReview Environmental Remediation and Conversion of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) into Useful Green Products by Accelerated Carbonation Technology
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(1), 203-228; doi:10.3390/ijerph7010203
Received: 26 November 2009 / Accepted: 12 January 2010 / Published: 18 January 2010
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (1037 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reviews the application of carbonation technology to the environmental industry as a way of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2), a green house gas, including the presentation of related projects of our research group. An alternative technology to very slow natural
[...] Read more.
This paper reviews the application of carbonation technology to the environmental industry as a way of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2), a green house gas, including the presentation of related projects of our research group. An alternative technology to very slow natural carbonation is the co-called ‘accelerated carbonation’, which completes its fast reaction within few hours by using pure CO2. Carbonation technology is widely applied to solidify or stabilize solid combustion residues from municipal solid wastes, paper mill wastes, etc. and contaminated soils, and to manufacture precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC). Carbonated products can be utilized as aggregates in the concrete industry and as alkaline fillers in the paper (or recycled paper) making industry. The quantity of captured CO2 in carbonated products can be evaluated by measuring mass loss of heated samples by thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis. The industrial carbonation technology could contribute to both reduction of CO2 emissions and environmental remediation. Full article
Open AccessReview The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(1), 303-313; doi:10.3390/ijerph7010303
Received: 8 December 2009 / Accepted: 20 January 2010 / Published: 25 January 2010
Cited by 43 | PDF Full-text (110 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental pollutant that is introduced into the environment primarily by military activity. While depleted uranium is less radioactive than natural uranium, it still retains all the chemical toxicity associated with the original element. In large doses the
[...] Read more.
Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental pollutant that is introduced into the environment primarily by military activity. While depleted uranium is less radioactive than natural uranium, it still retains all the chemical toxicity associated with the original element. In large doses the kidney is the target organ for the acute chemical toxicity of this metal, producing potentially lethal tubular necrosis. In contrast, chronic low dose exposure to depleted uranium may not produce a clear and defined set of symptoms. Chronic low-dose, or subacute, exposure to depleted uranium alters the appearance of milestones in developing organisms. Adult animals that were exposed to depleted uranium during development display persistent alterations in behavior, even after cessation of depleted uranium exposure. Adult animals exposed to depleted uranium demonstrate altered behaviors and a variety of alterations to brain chemistry. Despite its reduced level of radioactivity evidence continues to accumulate that depleted uranium, if ingested, may pose a radiologic hazard. The current state of knowledge concerning DU is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals and Health)

Other

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Open AccessCorrection Publisher’s Note – Received Date Error, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 3105-3114
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(1), 28; doi:10.3390/ijerph7010028
Received: 29 December 2009 / Published: 29 December 2009
PDF Full-text (26 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract Publisher’s Note added on 29 December 2009: The received date of Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 3105-3114 was wrongly published. [...] Full article

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