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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(9), 2354-2374; doi:10.3390/ijerph6092354
Article

Environmental Determinants of Asthma among School Children Aged 13-14 in and around Polokwane, Limpopo Province, South Africa

1,*  and 2
Received: 12 August 2009; Accepted: 1 September 2009 / Published: 3 September 2009
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Abstract: Asthma has become a public health issue since the 1960’s. Factors associated with asthma are environmental and genetic. This study is based on a random sample of 742 students aged 13-14 attending various schools at Polokwane, in the Province of Limpopo in South Africa. Survey logistic regression and multi-level analyses were used for data analysis. The study identifies three key determinants of asthma at the district, school and individual levels. The study shows that persistent cough (OR = 4.01), exposure to smoke at the household level (OR = 2.39) and lack of access to flush toileta at the household level (OR = 1.89) are key predictors of asthma in children. Variability at the level of districts accounts for 46% of total variance. Variability at the level of schools accounts for 33% of total variance.
Keywords: asthma; cough; smoke; flush toilet; odds ratio; multi-level analysis asthma; cough; smoke; flush toilet; odds ratio; multi-level analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Maluleke, K.R.; Worku, Z. Environmental Determinants of Asthma among School Children Aged 13-14 in and around Polokwane, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 2354-2374.

AMA Style

Maluleke KR, Worku Z. Environmental Determinants of Asthma among School Children Aged 13-14 in and around Polokwane, Limpopo Province, South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(9):2354-2374.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maluleke, Kidi R.; Worku, Zeleke. 2009. "Environmental Determinants of Asthma among School Children Aged 13-14 in and around Polokwane, Limpopo Province, South Africa." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 9: 2354-2374.



Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert