Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(9), 2354-2374; doi:10.3390/ijerph6092354
Article

Environmental Determinants of Asthma among School Children Aged 13-14 in and around Polokwane, Limpopo Province, South Africa

1 Research and Development, South African Social Security Agency, PO Box 54684, Wierdapark 0149, South Africa 2 Department of Statistics, University of South Africa, Pretoria 0002, South Africa
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 August 2009; Accepted: 1 September 2009 / Published: 3 September 2009
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Abstract: Asthma has become a public health issue since the 1960’s. Factors associated with asthma are environmental and genetic. This study is based on a random sample of 742 students aged 13-14 attending various schools at Polokwane, in the Province of Limpopo in South Africa. Survey logistic regression and multi-level analyses were used for data analysis. The study identifies three key determinants of asthma at the district, school and individual levels. The study shows that persistent cough (OR = 4.01), exposure to smoke at the household level (OR = 2.39) and lack of access to flush toileta at the household level (OR = 1.89) are key predictors of asthma in children. Variability at the level of districts accounts for 46% of total variance. Variability at the level of schools accounts for 33% of total variance.
Keywords: asthma; cough; smoke; flush toilet; odds ratio; multi-level analysis

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MDPI and ACS Style

Maluleke, K.R.; Worku, Z. Environmental Determinants of Asthma among School Children Aged 13-14 in and around Polokwane, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 2354-2374.

AMA Style

Maluleke KR, Worku Z. Environmental Determinants of Asthma among School Children Aged 13-14 in and around Polokwane, Limpopo Province, South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(9):2354-2374.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maluleke, Kidi R.; Worku, Zeleke. 2009. "Environmental Determinants of Asthma among School Children Aged 13-14 in and around Polokwane, Limpopo Province, South Africa." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 9: 2354-2374.

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