Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(8), 2307-2331; doi:10.3390/ijerph6082307
Article

Morphological Deformities as Biomarkers in Fish from Contaminated Rivers in Taiwan

1,* email, 2email, 2email and 2email
Received: 3 July 2009; Accepted: 17 August 2009 / Published: 21 August 2009
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) were collected seasonally from four contaminated rivers in southwestern Taiwan for studies of morphological deformities that could be used as biomarkers of contamination. Morphological deformities found in tilapia were separated into 15 categories. Overall, the prevalence of deformities such as split fins, lower lip extension and gill deformities were significantly related to various water quality parameters, including low DO and high ammonium, lead and zinc concentrations. The persistence of tilapia in polluted waters and the development of a suite of morphological deformities suggest that tilapia can be used as sentinels of non-point source pollution in rivers.
Keywords: tilapia; morphological deformity; biomarker; indicator; river pollution
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, P.L.; Hawkins, W.E.; Overstreet, R.M.; Brown-Peterson, N.J. Morphological Deformities as Biomarkers in Fish from Contaminated Rivers in Taiwan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 2307-2331.

AMA Style

Sun PL, Hawkins WE, Overstreet RM, Brown-Peterson NJ. Morphological Deformities as Biomarkers in Fish from Contaminated Rivers in Taiwan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(8):2307-2331.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sun, Peter L.; Hawkins, William E.; Overstreet, Robin M.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J. 2009. "Morphological Deformities as Biomarkers in Fish from Contaminated Rivers in Taiwan." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 8: 2307-2331.

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