Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Morphological Deformities as Biomarkers in Fish from Contaminated Rivers in Taiwan
Department of Aquaculture, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan
Gulf Coast Research Laboratory, The University of Southern Mississippi, P.O. Box 7000, Ocean Springs, MS 39566, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 July 2009; Accepted: 17 August 2009 / Published: 21 August 2009
Abstract: Tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) were collected seasonally from four contaminated rivers in southwestern Taiwan for studies of morphological deformities that could be used as biomarkers of contamination. Morphological deformities found in tilapia were separated into 15 categories. Overall, the prevalence of deformities such as split fins, lower lip extension and gill deformities were significantly related to various water quality parameters, including low DO and high ammonium, lead and zinc concentrations. The persistence of tilapia in polluted waters and the development of a suite of morphological deformities suggest that tilapia can be used as sentinels of non-point source pollution in rivers.
Keywords: tilapia; morphological deformity; biomarker; indicator; river pollution
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Sun, P.L.; Hawkins, W.E.; Overstreet, R.M.; Brown-Peterson, N.J. Morphological Deformities as Biomarkers in Fish from Contaminated Rivers in Taiwan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 2307-2331.
Sun PL, Hawkins WE, Overstreet RM, Brown-Peterson NJ. Morphological Deformities as Biomarkers in Fish from Contaminated Rivers in Taiwan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(8):2307-2331.
Sun, Peter L.; Hawkins, William E.; Overstreet, Robin M.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J. 2009. "Morphological Deformities as Biomarkers in Fish from Contaminated Rivers in Taiwan." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 8: 2307-2331.