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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(8), 2307-2331; doi:10.3390/ijerph6082307
Article

Morphological Deformities as Biomarkers in Fish from Contaminated Rivers in Taiwan

1,* , 2
, 2
 and 2
1 Department of Aquaculture, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan 2 Gulf Coast Research Laboratory, The University of Southern Mississippi, P.O. Box 7000, Ocean Springs, MS 39566, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 July 2009 / Accepted: 17 August 2009 / Published: 21 August 2009
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Abstract

Tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) were collected seasonally from four contaminated rivers in southwestern Taiwan for studies of morphological deformities that could be used as biomarkers of contamination. Morphological deformities found in tilapia were separated into 15 categories. Overall, the prevalence of deformities such as split fins, lower lip extension and gill deformities were significantly related to various water quality parameters, including low DO and high ammonium, lead and zinc concentrations. The persistence of tilapia in polluted waters and the development of a suite of morphological deformities suggest that tilapia can be used as sentinels of non-point source pollution in rivers.
Keywords: tilapia; morphological deformity; biomarker; indicator; river pollution tilapia; morphological deformity; biomarker; indicator; river pollution
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, P.L.; Hawkins, W.E.; Overstreet, R.M.; Brown-Peterson, N.J. Morphological Deformities as Biomarkers in Fish from Contaminated Rivers in Taiwan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 2307-2331.

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